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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 25 January 2011 at 10:14am

Food speculation: 'People die from hunger while banks make a killing on food'

It's not just bad harvests and climate change – it's also speculators that are behind record prices. And it's the planet's poorest who pay.

Just under three years ago, people in the village of Gumbi in western Malawi went unexpectedly hungry. Not like Europeans do if they miss a meal or two, but that deep, gnawing hunger that prevents sleep and dulls the senses when there has been no food for weeks.

Oddly, there had been no drought, the usual cause of malnutrition and hunger in southern Africa, and there was plenty of food in the markets. For no obvious reason the price of staple foods such as maize and rice nearly doubled in a few months. Unusually, too, there was no evidence that the local merchants were hoarding food. It was the same story in 100 other developing countries. There were food riots in more than 20 countries and governments had to ban food exports and subsidise staples heavily.

The explanation offered by the UN and food experts was that a "perfect storm" of natural and human factors had combined to hyper-inflate prices. US farmers, UN agencies said, had taken millions of acres of land out of production to grow biofuels for vehicles, oil and fertiliser prices had risen steeply, the Chinese were shifting to meat-eating from a vegetarian diet, and climate-change linked droughts were affecting major crop-growing areas. The UN said that an extra 75m people became malnourished because of the price rises.

But a new theory is emerging among traders and economists. The same banks, hedge funds and financiers whose speculation on the global money markets caused the sub-prime mortgage crisis are thought to be causing food prices to yo-yo and inflate. The charge against them is that by taking advantage of the deregulation of global commodity markets they are making billions from speculating on food and causing misery around the world.

As food prices soar again to beyond 2008 levels, it becomes clear that everyone is now being affected. Food prices are now rising by up to 10% a year in Britain and Europe. What is more, says the UN, prices can be expected to rise at least 40% in the next decade.

There has always been modest, even welcome, speculation in food prices and it traditionally worked like this. Farmer X protected himself against climatic or other risks by "hedging", or agreeing to sell his crop in advance of the harvest to Trader Y. This guaranteed him a price, and allowed him to plan ahead and invest further, and it allowed Trader Y to profit, too. In a bad year, Farmer X got a good return but in a good year Trader Y did better.

When this process of "hedging" was tightly regulated, it worked well enough. The price of real food on the real world market was still set by the real forces of supply and demand.

But all that changed in the mid-1990s. Then, following heavy lobbying by banks, hedge funds and free market politicians in the US and Britain, the regulations on commodity markets were steadily abolished. Contracts to buy and sell foods were turned into "derivatives" that could be bought and sold among traders who had nothing to do with agriculture. In effect a new, unreal market in "food speculation" was born. Cocoa, fruit juices, sugar, staples, meat and coffee are all now global commodities, along with oil, gold and metals. Then in 2006 came the US sub-prime disaster and banks and traders stampeded to move billions of dollars in pension funds and equities into safe commodities, and especially foods.

"We first became aware of this [food speculation] in 2006. It didn't seem like a big factor then. But in 2007/8 it really spiked up," said Mike Masters, fund manager at Masters Capital Management, who testified to the US Senate in 2008 that speculation was driving up global food prices. "When you looked at the flows there was strong evidence. I know a lot of traders and they confirmed what was happening. Most of the business is now speculation – I would say 70-80%."

Masters says the markets are now heavily distorted by investment banks: "Let's say news comes about bad crops and rain somewhere. Normally the price would rise about $1 [a bushel]. [But] when you have a 70-80% speculative market it goes up $2-3 to account for the extra costs. It adds to the volatility. It will end badly as all Wall Street fads do. It's going to blow up."

The speculative food market is truly vast, agrees Hilda Ochoa-Brillembourg, president of the Strategic Investment Group in New York. She estimates speculative demand for commodity futures has increased since 2008 by 40-80% in agricultural futures.

But the speculation is not just in staple foods. Last year, London hedge fund Armajaro bought 240,000 tonnes, or more than 7%, of the world's stocks of cocoa beans, helping to drive chocolate to its highest price in 33 years. Meanwhile, the price of coffee shot up 20% in just three days as a direct result of hedge funds betting on the price of coffee falling.

Olivier de Schutter, UN rapporteur on the right to food, is in no doubt that speculators are behind the surging prices. "Prices of wheat, maize and rice have increased very significantly but this is not linked to low stock levels or harvests, but rather to traders reacting to information and speculating on the markets," he says.

"People die from hunger while the banks make a killing from betting on food," says Deborah Doane, director of the World Development Movement in London.

The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation remains diplomatically non-committal,saying, in June, that: "Apart from actual changes in supply and demand of some commodities, the upward swing might also have been amplified by speculation in organised future markets."

The UN is backed by Ann Berg, one of the world's most experienced futures traders. She argues that differentiating between commodities futures markets and commodity-related investments in agriculture is impossible.

"There is no way of knowing exactly [what is happening]. We had the housing bubble and the credit default. The commodities market is another lucrative playing field [where] traders take a fee. It's a sensitive issue. [Some] countries buy direct from the markets. As a friend of mine says: 'What for a poor man is a crust, for a rich man is a securitised asset class.'"

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 19 February 2011 at 3:45am
The End of Poverty won critical acclaim at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival and is narrated by actor Martin Sheen. It is a daring, thought-provoking and very timely documentary by filmmaker Philippe Diaz. The film takes a hard look at world poverty and challenges capitalism. In a world of plenty, why are so many families around the planet still living in abject poverty?
 
 
(About 3 mins)
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 13 March 2011 at 4:49pm
The Culture of Poverty Debate
 

The controversial notion of “Culture of Poverty” is back, featured today in the NY Times in an article by Patricia Cohen. The piece starts with the historical roots of the debate in the work of Daniel Patrick Moynihan, who drew on the anthropologist Oscar Lewis in describing a culture of poverty among African-Americans.

By “attributing self-perpetuating moral deficiencies to black people, as if blaming them for their own misfortune,” a generation of scholars working in the United States generally avoided cultural explanations for social phenomena, and “the idea that attitudes and behavior patterns kept people poor was shunned.”

The NY Times article has a similar strategy – provide some big picture, and then focus on some examples.

With these studies come many new and varied definitions of culture, but they all differ from the ’60s-era model in these crucial respects: Today, social scientists are rejecting the notion of a monolithic and unchanging culture of poverty. And they attribute destructive attitudes and behavior not to inherent moral character but to sustained racism and isolation.

What the NY Times article does not do, but what today’s essay Free Will and Responsibility in 3 Quarks Daily does in spades, is consider how values and beliefs relate to the environment.

The most effective way to control our behavior, as individuals or as a species, may be through manipulation of its determinants. We can generally modify circumstances more easily than we can modify traits.

On an individual level, this could mean limiting access to things we know we can’t resist (like butter, in my case). It could also mean enlisting the help of friends or making use of other external influences, like support groups. At the collective level, we could work toward creating social conditions that promote healthy and moral behaviors. We could ban advertising for unhealthy products, and we could work toward achieving income equality.

Whether we have free will or not, we certainly aren’t completely free, autonomous individuals. We influence and are influenced by our physical and social environments, often without our awareness. Collectively, we create circumstances that shape the behavior of individuals. And as individuals we can influence collective decision making and alter social conditions.

A similar example also comes from the work of Robert Sampson (whom we’ve featured in the post Disparity, Disorder, and Diversity):

[Sampson] found that growing up in areas where violence limits socializing outside the family and where parents haven’t attended college stunts verbal ability, lowering I.Q. scores by as much as six points, the equivalent of missing more than a year in school.

This is a very different lesson, one that highlights socialization, people growing up, and interactions among parents and children.

But in the big picture, what really matters is poverty, and the associated inequality. As the economist Robert Frank writes elsewhere in the NY Times today in Income Inequality: Too Big to Ignore:

In short, the economist’s cost-benefit approach — itself long an important arrow in the moral philosopher’s quiver — has much to say about the effects of rising inequality. We need not reach agreement on all philosophical principles of fairness to recognize that it has imposed considerable harm across the income scale without generating significant offsetting benefits.

No one dares to argue that rising inequality is required in the name of fairness. So maybe we should just agree that it’s a bad thing — and try to do something about it.

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 11 August 2011 at 5:42pm

The Man With iPad! (A Journalist’s Experience) Amidst Drought and Sufferings

I never know how to behave when I go to write about hungry people.

I usually bring just a notebook and a pen because it seems somehow more subtle than a recorder. I drain bottled water or hide it before I get out of the car or the plane. In Ethiopia, a few years ago I was telling a funny story to some other journalists as our car pulled up near a church where we had been told people were arriving looking for food.We got out and began walking towards the place, me still telling the tale, shouting my mouth off, struggling to get to the punch line through my laughter and everybody else’s.

Then there was this sound, a low rumbling thing that came to meet us.

I could feel it roll across the ground and up through my boots. I stopped talking, my laughter died, I grabbed the arm of the person beside me: “What is that?” And I realized. It was the sound of children crying. There were enough children crying that — I’ll say it again — I could feel it in my boots. I was shamed by my laughter.

Inside the churchyard there were tents and inside the tents children were dying.

Rows and rows of women sat on the ground cradling delicate babies. An aid worker told us we had ten minutes and so we went to work. Camera shutters clicking, pens scratching: “What’s her name? How far did she walk? How many of her kids are dead?”

Some journalists leaned down over the mothers to talk to them, some stuck cameras inches from their faces. I stood further away when taking the photos; I sat down in the dirt to interview people. I thought I was better, but I wasn’t. I was just more conceited.

I remember looking up and seeing a girl who worked at a UN aid agency crying. I motioned to her to get out — her tears as self-indulgent as my sitting in the dirt. And then we leave. Thank you, we say. Thank you for talking to me. Thank you for holding up your dying baby for my camera. And thank you for your dignity. Thank you for giving it to me. Thank you for letting me have it.

Because that’s the thing! An Ethiopian girl told me last week that she cried as she watched foreign journalists interviewing a Somali woman in a Kenyan refugee camp. “All she had left was her dignity,” she said. “And then they took that, too.”

She was right. And I knew that I had done that. Many, many times…

I used to tell myself that it was okay because what I did was important. A UN official once excitedly phoned me at 7am to tell me the US had donated millions of dollars to his agency because someone from the government had read a story of mine in the Washington Post.

Another aid worker approached me in a bar in Addis Ababa. “Hey! That story you wrote about that woman? That woman who had a kid die every year for the last four years and now only has one left? Awesome, man! Awesome!”

Her name was Ayantu. I don’t know if her son, Hirbu, is still alive.

Last weekend I was there again. The UN loaded me and some other journalists onto one of their planes in Nairobi and we flew to a tiny village near Somalia to meet people suffering from hunger, to ask them our questions, to find the sorriest tales possible.

We jumped into an imperious row of white jeeps when we landed and swept into the village. Doors flew open, everybody walked very fast, everybody was very important.

I saw six people all firing their cameras at one bemused woman. I saw aid workers fawning over the head of the World Food Programme. I saw soldiers fanning out to protect us. And then I saw the man with the iPad. I stood and stared for some time, enjoying the deliciousness of what was one of the strangest things I had ever seen in my life.

I raised the camera.

This is what I’ll write, I thought. Not about another Ayantu. Not again.

Because it’s a cycle. African governments know that drought is coming and they don’t prepare. Foreign charities working there talk about long-term plans to help people become self-sufficient but they’ve been failing to achieve them for 20 years. It’s as much about politics and war and poor economic policies as it is about no rain. I’m no expert but I know that much.

I also know it’s wrong that every few years we’re faced with an “emergency” that could have been prevented, that aid groups must frantically try to raise money to respond, that journalists need to find emaciated babies at death’s door and film and photograph and write about them before the world gives a damn.

Part of me felt bad for publishing the photo of the man with the iPad. Because he was a good person doing his job. And because we are the same.

He comes with an iPad, I come with a notebook.

Both of us steal dignity and neither of us belong!

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote searching Replybullet Posted: 12 August 2011 at 9:41pm
This story has me in tears, to be honest.  I can't even begin to imagine how awful it would be to see your own child starving in front of you.  As mothers, we want our children to be happy and healthy.  Living in a prosperous country, I have never had to watch my child go hungry.  I have a healthy young boy who gets to eat good food and clean water.  Alhamdulilah. 

I have felt guilty even at iftar eating such good foods, healthy foods knowing that people in the Horn of Africa and elsewhere are literally starving to death, watching their children starve to death in front of them.  And Ramadan has made me think that as I go shopping for a new piece of clothing, I could be spending that money on food for others who are less fortunate than I am. 

May Allah reduce the suffering of these poor, starving people.  May He guide the aid agencies and governments and others involved to handle droughts in a way that saves lives.  May He reward the mothers who lost their children, in this life and most importantly the Hereafter.  Ameen.
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 20 August 2011 at 12:23am
Aameen
 
Ramadan: Wealth and Poverty
 
Don’t worry; this is not a religious sermon. I am neither an Imam, nor a priest of any kind. Although fasting in the month of Ramadan is a spiritual act for Muslims, it may offer valuable lessons that are beneficial to all humanity, and provide some insight into human nature.   
 
 
In countries like the UK, in the summer time, this period of fasting extends from 3 AM to approximately 9 PM. My non-Muslim colleagues curiously ask me every year: do I really abstain from food and water for almost 18 hours every day for the entire month? The experience and the fear of the pangs of hunger, make human beings think about the fragile nature of life, and the value of food and drink. You would think the human race would naturally do their utmost not to waste food and drink, which is essential for survival, yet, despite witnessing poverty, there is huge wastage every year in the wealthy nations of the world. 
 
Apart from abstinence, Ramadan is also a time for giving and sharing. Whenever I would go to the beautiful Mosque (Masjid) in Medina or some other major Masjid with a couple of dates to break my fast, I would come back home with a bag full of food, as everyone rushing to give away something and collect the reward from their Creator. If the Muslims were in this frame of mind for the entire year, there would surely be a huge reduction in hunger.When you witness so many people walking away with more food than they brought in, it proves that when the majority are actively engaged in giving and sharing there is an abundance of food. 
 
If we amplify this model of sharing, most communities can collectively satisfy themselves; those with excess food and those with very little will balance out, and those with little requirement and those with more will also balance out; thus, the extremes of gluttony and poverty can be avoided to some extent. But, in the real world, there is famine in Africa and obesity in the western world. Despite all the technological advances, poverty has not been eliminated. Rather than a space-race, a race to eliminate poverty and disease would have been far more useful.
 
Those fasting in Ramadan should certainly appreciate poverty, where people are forced to fast continuously; the people in Somalia today will not have an abundance of food and water waiting for them when the time approaches to break their fast. The solution to poverty suggested by Islam is to share and distribute, and the general command is to circulate wealth. There are many verses that extol the believers to donate money, not because it is a favour to the poor, but to relieve the obligation on their neck. On the Day of Judgement, it is the wealthy and rich with excess wealth that will be accounted and not the poor and destitute. The solution seems to be focused on the ‘distribution’ of the wealth rather than production of wealth; because mankind will naturally produce driven by need. The real test is: can they collectively share the wealth amongst them where people of different capabilities and needs exist?
 
A knee-jerk response to poverty is to maximise production and accumulate; this is the doctrine of capitalism, and individuals are taught to be greedy and selfish, which dents the notion of wealth circulation. Those who have acquired wealth do not let it trickle down enough. Human greed is the age old vice, even mentioned in the ten commandments of the Bible. The proof of greed is there all around us, obesity is a problem in most wealthy nations. 
 

 
In contrast to hoarding, there is something magical about sharing, it binds the human family, which we appreciate less and less because living in a materialistic society, our values and our traits tells us to accumulate as much as possible, even if it means to monopolise the market and deprive others. I often wonder with amazement how large corporations with billions in their pockets would go to great lengths to deprive the small competitor. Isn’t there enough for everyone? How much can a human being consume in his life time? Why are there billionaires and millionaires? Can you really consume that much money over a life time? Even if we live for an average of 60 years, a third of that is spent sleeping.
 
The experience of hunger through fasting should also lead to a change in attitude towards food; it should be treated with respect, not wasted needlessly. Yet, our habit is to accumulate more food than we can consume out of fear of poverty or driven by greed. The households in the UK and other wealthy western nations, including oil-rich Muslim countries waste large amounts of food every year, even through the recession. Just think, if you spent less, the excess money could be given in charity which would mean helping someone in genuine need, rather than wasted food ending up in the bin. It might be one small contribution to eliminate the food-mountains in one place, and transfer some of that to where it is scarce.
 
La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 28 October 2011 at 7:47am
Women Farmers Feed the World       
In West Africa, women's resistance to the new Green Revolution shows that the question of agricultural sustainability is also a question of equality.       
 
Fatou Batta: The willingness to feed the poor is good. But the strategy is not a good one. It's completely the opposite of what can work. Just listen, really listen, to small-scale farmers—because they are the ones who feed the world..... In our context, it is related to the type of food we want to eat and produce, and having the ability to produce what we eat. It seems that in the U.S., food justice is much better understood than food sovereignty. But in our context, controlling the production of what we eat is key—not just get something that is imposed....

The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) is a Gates Foundation-funded initiative based in Nairobi and spearheaded by Kofi Annan, former secretary general of the U.N. It's a multimillion-dollar project that seeks to increase food production in Africa by implementing vigorous Western-style agricultural techniques, promising high-yield results for food-insecure populations.

According to the Gates Foundation and other supporters, it's an African-led endeavor, modeled on the previous Green Revolutions of Latin America and the Indian sub-continent but placed in the hands of Africans. It sounds like a good idea.

But a growing movement of local farmers—largely led by women—argue that the surest path to food security is securing food sovereignty. It's a concept that was put forward in the early 90's by Via Campesina, an international alliance of peasant, indigenous, and women's organizations that advocates for communities' control over how food is produced, and who gets to eat it.

 

 

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 05 November 2012 at 1:51pm

Spiritual Capital for Social Change

 
When talking about capital most people think of money, gold, homes, and land. But there is a new and growing perspective focused on non-traditional capital, according to Dr. Katherine Marshall, a leading global development expert and senior fellow at the Berkeley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs at Georgetown University. In this interview, she will share her insights into the wealth that brings “spiritual” values to our society and societies around the world. How valuable is trust? What kind of world would this be if no one practiced compassion or generosity? Often when people talk about the accumulation of wealth, they invoke the phrase: “You can’t take it with you. But maybe there is a kind of wealth that does live on, generation after generation. In fact, it is the only kind of wealth that will follow us into the future.
 
 
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Buying Out Our Guilts

Life is built on inequality, from nature's food chain to our social structures. In order for me to be able to write this piece on my iPad, someone in China produces it under borderline humane conditions. In order for us to be able to afford our fuel gluttony, someone else across the globe bares the impact of the "necessary" strategic policies. Our whole western livelihood has unfortunately been rooted in someone else's suffering: Native Americans, Africans, Australian Aborigines and the list goes on. One of the effects of the information era is that the raw images from the bottom of the pyramid can now reach beyond our doorstep, marching right into our cozy living room. We are now obliged to confront our present and past identity guilts. This blunt confrontation induces us to prove to ourselves, and perhaps to the ones around us, that we actually do care.

This need to soothe our conscience has transcended into a multi-billion dollar industry. We are consistently bombarded by commercials featuring malnourished kids, amputees and puppy seals. The guilt trade flourishes immediately after each disaster and right before the end of the fiscal year -- performing a good deed is great, getting money back for it is even better. Afterwards we forget all about it, like we do after throwing a dollar in a homeless person's cup, walking away with pride, having temporarily silenced our inner voice. No questions are asked if the donated money finally reaches what it is meant for and in what way.

 

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Dr.Hans Rosling: Religions, Babies and Poverty

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezVk1ahRF78

(About 13 mins)

 
 
 
Dr. Hans Rosling at Child Survival Call to Action conference
 
 
(About 3 mins)
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Richard Wilkinson: How economic inequality harms societies

“The average well-being of our societies is not dependent any longer on national income and economic growth. … But the differences between us and where we are in relation to each other now matter very much.”

We feel instinctively that societies with huge income gaps are somehow going wrong. Richard Wilkinson charts the hard data on economic inequality, and shows what gets worse when rich and poor are too far apart: real effects on health, lifespan, even such basic values as trust.

For decades, Richard Wilkinson has studied the social effects of income inequality and how social forces affect health. In The Spirit Level, a book coauthored with Kate Pickett, he lays out reams of statistical evidence that, among developed countries, societies that are more equal – with a smaller income gap between rich and poor -- are happier and healthier than societies with greater disparities in the distribution of wealth.

While poverty has long been recognized as an indicator for such social ills as crime, obesity, teen pregnancy, Wilkinson and Pickett have demonstrated that societal well-being bears no relation to per capita income. They’ve also found that the symptoms of inequality trouble all levels of society. Across the board, mental health, levels of violence and addiction, even life expectancy are affected by the psycho-social stress caused by income gaps and status anxiety.

http://www.ted.com/talks/richard_wilkinson.html

(About 17 mins)

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Why Jeffrey Sachs is wrong about sweatshops
 
Jeffrey Sachs, well-known author of The End of Poverty, once famously stated, “My concern is not that there are too many sweatshops, but that there are too few.” Similarly Paul Krugman has argued that sweatshops “move hundreds of millions of people from abject poverty to something still awful but nonetheless significantly better … [so] the growth of sweatshop employment is tremendous good news for the world’s poor.”

A few targeted changes to global trade rules could create a world where sweatshops wouldn’t have to exist. If developing countries were allowed to erect import tariffs to protect small-scale agriculture and enforce labour regulations to ensure that every working citizen earned a living wage, the sweatshop concept would be completely unnecessary. Of course, if the workers that make our shoes, clothes, and electronics were earning decent wages, that would mean that we would all pay a little bit more for our stuff, and the companies that sell it might net a little bit less. But income redistribution along these lines would hardly be a bad thing, especially given today’s historically unprecedented levels of social inequality: The wealthiest 1% of the world’s population controls 40% of the world’s wealth while the bottom 50% controls a mere 1%.

The counter-argument holds that if working conditions become too humane and wages too decent in any given country companies will relocate to more welcoming states, hurting GDP and leaving the poor with fewer employment opportunities. This could be solved with an international minimum wage law (putting a floor on the race to the bottom) and a targeted trade quota system that channels foreign direct investment to where it is needed to alleviate poverty rather than to where labour is most exploitable. In addition, states can help create good jobs for their citizens by protecting local infant industries and by implementing import substitution programmes.

Such policies have been tried before. The United States, Great Britain, and virtually every major economic power have been built on precisely these principles, and they were standard practice for many developing countries emerging from colonialism in the 1960s. If the developing world were to reinstate these policies — winding back the clock to a time before structural adjustment — they would be able to significantly improve local employment and generate an additional $480 billion per year in GDP above current levels. But such reforms would require confronting the entrenched interests of the states and corporations that control global trade policy for their own narrow benefit.

Sweatshops may indeed be preferable to poverty. But instead of taking poverty for granted in the first place, we should question the processes that produce it — the policies that make people desperate. Sweatshops are an easy, unthinking solution, and only make sense if we are ready to bend to the dictates of “market efficiency” and accept exploitation as economically rational. What we need is a new economics, one that can think beyond the limited boundaries of neoliberal ideology and make an effort to construct a more humane and democratic world. The question is not whether we have the ability to do this, but whether we have the courage.

 
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“To understand how that astounding moral blindness was possible, it is helpful to think of the workers of an armament plant who rejoice in the 'stay of execution' of their factory thanks to big new orders, while at the same time honestly bewailing the massacres visited upon each other by Ethiopians and Eritreans; or to think how it is possible that the 'fall in commodity prices' may be universally welcomed as good news while 'starvation of African children' is equally universally, and sincerely, lamented.”

 
 
Zygmunt Bauman, Modernity and the Holocaust
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 20 October 2014 at 9:34am

How to reduce poverty? Fix homes

In 1985, architect Paul Pholeros was challenged by the director of an Aboriginal-controlled health service to "stop people getting sick" in a small indigenous community in south Australia. The key insights: think beyond medicine and fix the local environment. In this sparky, interactive talk, Pholeros describes projects undertaken by Healthabitat, the organization he now runs to help reduce poverty—through practical design fixes—in Australia and beyond.

Paul Pholeros is a director of Healthabitat, a longstanding effort to improve the health of indigenous people by fixing their living environment and housing.


http://https://www.ted.com/talks/paul_pholeros_how_to_reduce_poverty_fix_homes





La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah
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