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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 06 March 2010 at 11:48pm

Cordoba was the capital of Muslim Spain. It soon became the center for all light and learning for the entire Europe. Scholars and students from various parts of the world and Europe came to Cordoba to study. The contrast in intellectual activity is demonstrated best by one example: ‘In the ninth century, the library of the monastery of St. Gall was the largest in Europe. It boasted 36 volumes. At the same time, that of Cordoba contained over 500,000!’.

The idea of the college was a concept which was borrowed from Muslims. The first colleges appeared in the Muslim world in the late 600's and early 700's. In Europe, some of the earliest colleges are those under the University of Paris and Oxford they were founded around the thirteenth century. These early European colleges were also funded by trusts similar to the Islamic ones and legal historians have traced them back to the Islamic system. The internal organization of these European colleges was strikingly similar to the Islamic ones, for example the idea of Graduate (Sahib) and undergraduate (mutafaqqih) is derived directly from Islamic terms.

In the field of Mathematics the number Zero (0) and the decimal system was introduced to Europe, which became the basis for the Scientific revolution. The Arabic numerals were also transferred to Europe, this made mathematical tasks much easier, problems that took days to solve could now be solved in minutes. The works of Al-Khwarizmi (Alghorismus) were translated into Latin. Alghorismus, from whom the mathematical term algorism was derived, wrote Sindhind, a compilation of astronomical tables. He, more importantly, laid the ground work for algebra and found methods to deal with complex mathematical problems, such as square roots and complex fractions. He conducted numerous experiments, measured the height of the earth's atmosphere and discovered the principle of the magnifying lens. Many of his books were translated into European languages. Trigonometric work by Alkirmani of Toledo was translated into Latin (from which we get the sine and cosine functions) along with the Greek knowledge of Geometry by Euclid. Along with mathematics, masses of other knowledge in the field of physical science was transferred.

How Islam Influenced Science
by Macksood Aftab -The Islamic Herald

La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 09 March 2010 at 3:31pm
Time to acknowledge science's debt to Islam?

  • Book information
  • Science and Islam: A history by Ehsan Masood
  • Published by: Icon Books
  • Price: £14.99
  • Book information
  • The House of Wisdom: How the Arabs transformed Western civilization by Jonathan Lyons
  • Published by: Bloomsbury Press
  • Price: £20.00

WHEN Roman civilisation fell in the early centuries AD, the light of scholarship was extinguished. It was close to a thousand years before civilisation recovered, thanks to European scholars who rediscovered classical Greek learning and ushered in the new dawn of the Renaissance.

At least, this is how history is taught. Now two books argue that this view ignores the crucial role of Islamic scholars.

In the first part of Science and Islam, a fascinating and clearly written book, Ehsan Masood tells how Islam spread rapidly from the 7th century onward, from the west of China to the south of Spain. As Europe slumbered in the Dark Ages, science-friendly caliphs such as al-Mamun, who ruled Baghdad in the 9th century, sponsored the translation of scientific texts from lands they had conquered.

Among them were the works of scholars such as 8th-century mathematician Musa al-Khwarizmi, who popularised the Indian number system and invented algebra; ibn-Sina (also known as Avicenna), a Persian polymath who realised in the 11th century that diseases can spread through soil and water; and 13th-century astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, who made improvements to the Greek planetary models that Nicolaus Copernicus later relied on for his heliocentric theory.

While the Islamic world was enjoying astronomy, philosophy and medicine, those in Europe could not tell the hours of the day, thought the Earth was flat, and saw disease as punishment from God, says Jonathan Lyons in The House of Wisdom. That changed after the Crusades, set in motion by Pope Urban II at the end of the 11th century, which resulted in a spectacular growth in trade and communication between east and west. Knowledge that had taken centuries to build was unleashed on an unsuspecting Europe.

The House of Wisdom is a demanding read, with confusing jumps in time. But Lyons vividly conveys the excitement young European scholars travelling east must have felt as they glimpsed a dazzling new world of learning. The influences of Arab culture on the west are pervasive, in imports such as gardens, carpets and chess, and in our scientific vocabulary - from alkali and algebra to zero and zenith. More important than any individual piece of knowledge, though, was the Islamic world's fundamental realisation that science can grant humans power over nature.

Masood and Lyons agree that the Arabs' success was down to their receptivity to new ideas, much of which came directly from their religion. Though not all religious leaders were happy with the scientists' influence, the Prophet Muhammad had encouraged his followers to seek knowledge, "even if you must go all the way to China".

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126962.400-time-to-acknowledge-sciences-debt-to-islam.html




Edited by a well wisher - 09 March 2010 at 3:32pm
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 15 March 2010 at 2:11am

The Origin of Bimaristans (Hospitals) in Islamic Medical History

With the dawn of Islam on the Bedouin, nomadic tribes of the Arabian Peninsula came an enlightenment, not only strictly spiritual in nature, but also with cultural, educational and scientific connotations.

Among the fruits of this enlightenment was the eventual establishment of huge health facilities that, among other things, played an important educational role amongst physicians of the age.

The first bimaristan, as these establishments were called, was built in Damascus in 86 Hijri (707 A.D.) by Caliph Al-Waleed ibn `Abdul-Malik (1). The aim of its construction was the treatment of acute diseases and the care of patients affected with chronic diseases (such as lepers and the blind). Leprosy patients were not only treated free of charge but were given money to help in supporting their families.

The word bimaristan is of Persian origin and means hospital, with bimar meaning disease and stan meaning location or place; thus the location or place of disease (2).

The Bimaristan System:

The physicians of the Islamic world set up a concise system for bimaristans with two important aims: the welfare of their patients who were treated according to the latest in medical know-how, and teaching medicine to newly graduated physicians ...

 Read more: http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience/HSELayout&cid=1158658281894#ixzz0iDOIs41W

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 19 March 2010 at 2:55am
Tracing the Impact of Latin Translations of Arabic Texts on European Society

Imagine a period in history, a time when Arab and Islamic cultures were at their zenith, renowned for their learning and scholarship. Aspiring scholars from the world over, flocked to these centres to get the best education money could buy. Some of these centres were privately run Madrasas, attached to mosques, with a wide ranging curriculum that focused on both religious and secular higher education. You did not have to be a Muslim to attend a course of learning at these Madrassas. By contrast enrolling at a university in medieval Europe was the first step to taking holy orders and to priesthood. Thus not only were European institutions of higher learning not open to Jews and Muslims but they were also closed to Christian scholars who wanted to fulfill their educational aspirations without having to take up holy orders. Hence Christian and Jewish scholars who were in a position to, also sought out these Madrassas and were not averse to the opportunity of being instructed by the leading scholars of the Muslim world of that time, not only in secular courses but also in Bible and Torah studies. In other words these Madrassas were all round institutions of adult learning that had an international reputation and appeal that crossed religious and political divides.

The 8th to the 13th centuries was such a period in Islamic history, when scholars from the Arab and the wider Islamic world explored the learning of earlier civilizations and built out of them a world civilization based on science which was previously unmatched. Arab and Arabic is key here. For just as today, English is the lingua franca of the modern age, the language in which flagship achievements, especially of science and technology are expressed. So Arabic was the international language of communication of the medieval age, certainly in regard to science and technology. Medieval European scholars who wanted to share in this learning needed to master Arabic as a first step.

Today the tables have turned and it is scholars from Islamic lands - those who can, who flock West to immerse themselves not only in the best modern education money can buy, but also to rediscover the golden age of Islamic learning. It is now the Western scholars who have taken on the role of preserving and unlocking the old Arabic texts that hold the details of what Muslims conveyed to the Europe of the middle ages. ...

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 05 April 2010 at 7:55pm
Harun Yahya:The Qur'an Leads The Way To Science
 
 
 
 
(About 40 mins)
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 18 April 2010 at 3:50pm

Thought for the Day, 25 August 2005

Abdal Hakim Murad

A group of over 500 scientists has just issued a new declaration on animal testing in medical research. They are all for it, it seems. Nobel laureates, professors, Fellows of the Royal Society, these great luminaries of the nation's labs insist that animal testing is an essential ingredient in the research that may bring relief to millions of victims of some of the world's most miserable complaints.

This has always been one of the most tricky of ethical dilemmas. The right of innocent animals not to suffer torture seems non-negotiable, until you point out that the need to defeat disease is non-negotiable as well. The anti-vivisection camp has not found it easy to deal with the fact that vaccines, insulin, anticoagulants, and other drugs which have saved millions of lives were developed in part by inflicting pain on animals.

Our public debate has been further confused by the bad behaviour of animal rights extremists. Only on Tuesday a farm in Staffordshire which provides guinea pigs to medical research labs announced it was changing its line of business, following death threats, hate mail, and arson attacks. By muddying the moral waters, such terrorism has certainly done the cause of animals no favours at all.

Away from the emotions, the issue is one of rights. Is humanity so categorically superior to other orders of creation that we can abolish the rights of other species when they clash with our own? In some cases, this is unarguable. I will drive my car into a flock of sheep to avoid hitting a child. But at other times things are less clear. Medical research is a gamble: many possibilities must be explored before an effective treatment is found. How do I measure the chance of reducing human suffering against the certainty of inducing suffering in an animal?

Religion, happily or unhappily, offers no easy answer to this. The Prophet Muhammad said, 'God has created a cure for every illness', and Muslims are prominent in the health service in this country, and also in medical research. Yet he had much to say about the treatment of animals. 'May God curse those who mutilate animals', is one rather unambiguous saying. When returning from a journey, he would feed and unburden his camel before attending to his prayers.

So is there a particular Muslim view on this difficult question of animal testing? I suspect that in the light of the Prophet's teaching, there is an urgent need to find alternatives. Primate testing should certainly be banned. The claims made by the cosmetics industry should be met by the idea that probably, all things considered, there are enough cosmetics already.

But one religious teaching is unarguable, and it is unique to religion. It is meaningless to apologise to animals; but if we continue with experimenting on their bodies, for whatever reason, we must at least apologise to God.

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 27 April 2010 at 2:42am

Ibn Khaldun and Adam Smith: Contributions to Theory of Division of Labor and Modern Economic Thought

The contributions of Ibn Khaldun to the development of economic thought have gone largely unnoticed in the academic realm of Western nations, this despite recent research focusing on Khaldun's magnum opus, The Muqaddimah.

In this paper, we examine the similarities between The Muqaddimah and Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, particularly as they discuss the benefits of a system of specialization and trade and the role of markets and price systems.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1206 

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 15 May 2010 at 9:59am

Muslim doctors and Islamic history of Europe

Muslim Doctors who gave the basis or fountain that medicine is standing on today:

A Spanish doctor in Cordoba explains some of the contributions of early Muslim doctors

http://islamonline.com/mm/video/video.php?op=showvideo&vidid=1484

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 18 May 2010 at 5:59pm
A brother from Australia presents in this video some of the main inventions by Muslim scientists in a light way
 
 
The program is Salam Cafe
 
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 19 May 2010 at 8:46am
 

IN RETROSPECT:

The Islamic Revolution

 
Revolution is defined as a sudden, radical or complete change; especially the overthrow or renunciation of one ruler or government and substitution of another by the governed. To change fundamentally or completely. To turn over in the mind: reflect upon: ponder.

In the Muslim world this revolution was brought about through the influence of religion. The western world began its revolution by separating the secular sciences from religion culminating in the landing of man on the moon. Modern science is a part of the Islamic revolution. Because of the polytheistic view natural sciences had become forbidden territory and natural phenomena were given sanctity. The Islamic revolution of monotheism opened the doors of research and investigation by displacing nature from its sacred pedestal. Modern science is wholly the gift of the Islamic revolution-directly in its initial stages, and indirectly in its later stages. Modern scientific revolution was set in motion by Islam, which was sent by the Almighty for the guidance of all mankind for all eternity. Henri Pirenne author of "History of Western Europe" says, "Islam changed the face of the globe. The traditional order of history was overthrown." Islam is complete truth. All-pervasiveness of superstition served as a hurdle to all kinds of human development. The kings or rulers exploited the masses through polytheism and superstition. The kings represented God on earth. Some kings like Nimrod, Pharaoh claimed as gods.

Dr. George Sarton, a former Professor of History of Science at Harvard University, stated in his book, "The Life of Science" that the foundations of science were laid for us by the Mesopotamian civilization (present day Iraq) whose scholars and scientists were their priests. The second development of science came through the Greeks. The Third Stage of development, however, is to be credited to the meteoric rise of Islam. For nearly four hundred years Islam led the scientific world as from one end of Islam to the other, from Spain to India, the great body of past knowledge was exchanged between her scholars and the torch carried forward with the new discoveries. Scholars of Christendom from about the eleventh century were mainly occupied for over two hundred years in translating from Arabic into Latin. Thus Islam paved the way for the Renaissance, which in turn led to science's fourth great development in the modern world.

It was God's decree that Prophet Muhammad (s) to be a da'i (missionary) as well as a mahi (eradicator).

The Qur'an says:

"We have revealed to you this book so that, by the will of their Lord, you may lead men from darkness to light.

(Quran, 14: 1)



Edited by a well wisher - 19 May 2010 at 8:47am
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote searching Replybullet Posted: 22 May 2010 at 10:00pm
I'm the PBS documentary Inside Islam, they discussed how the Qur'an described fetal development. It was absolutely amazing to me how accurate it was. Modern science only relatively recently solved this mystery. And it's in the Qur'an which is an ancient text. I was very impressed.
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 23 May 2010 at 1:12am
PBS have surely produced a number of good and interesting documentaries over the years
 
In the field of Social Sciences, Ibn Khaldun, the briliant Tunisian Muslim scholar of the 14th. century, is considered by many to be the founder of a number of modern disciplines, including Sociology. In Economics, he was 350 years ahead of Adam Smith:
 
Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Empires

Caroline Stone

The 14th-century historiographer and historian Abu Zayd ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun was a brilliant scholar and thinker now viewed as a founder of modern historiography, sociology and economics.

Living in one of human kind's most turbulent centuries, he observed at first hand, or participated in, such decisive events as the birth of new states, the disintegration of the Muslim Andalus and the advance of the Christian reconquest, the Hundred Years' War, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the decline of Byzantium and the epidemic of the Black Death.

Considered by modern critics as the thinker that conceived and created a philosophy of history that was undoubtedly one of the greatests works ever created by a man of intelligence, so groundbreaking were his ideas, and so far ahead of his time, that his writings are taken as a lens through which to view not only his own time but the relations between Europe and the Muslim world in our own time as well.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1208

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 09 June 2010 at 6:19pm

Sultans of Science: Showcasing exhibits from Islam's Golden Age 

Sultans of Science is a traveling exhibition that is currently in Canada, which exemplifies Islam's great contribution to modern science. The exhibition, which opened on May 19 and continues until Sept. 7, currently takes place at the TELUS World of Science center in Edmonton.

This is the second time "Sultans of Science" is being showcased in Canada. Earlier, the exhibition was held at the Ontario Science Centre where it drew record crowds. The exhibition will be at the Edmonton venue for three months and will travel to another North American venue.

"The exhibition is focused on science and technology and is non-political and non-religious," says Ludo Verheyen, the CEO of MTE Studios. MTE Studios is a specialized consultancy firm based in Dubai that focuses on "themed architecture and interactive learning experiences." It recently signed a contract with TELUS World of Science to showcase the global traveling exhibition at Edmonton in Canada.

"We want to create an awareness of our indebtedness to a civilization, which was once the greatest in the world, and which is undoubtedly part of our heritage," says Verheyen. "History textbooks refer to events when Europe slumbered in a period which is commonly known as the Dark Ages, but few people are aware of the tremendous contributions Muslim scholars made in science and technology during the Golden Age of the Islamic World (700 to 1,700 C.E.) toward today's technology and society."

The civilization of Islam's Golden Age thrived on seeking knowledge that led to inventions, discoveries and prosperity. Its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would enable the development of computers. Its doctors examined the body, undertook operations with medical instruments, which are very similar to today's ones, and found new cures for diseases. Its astronomers observed the heavens, developed astronomical tools to calculate their position on earth and paved the way for satellites and travel in space. Its engineers, like Al Jazari -- who is regarded as the father of modern mechanical engineering -- developed ingenious devices such as the first robot.

"We trust, however, that the exhibition may trigger constructive debate on the importance of building bridges between civilizations, keeping knowledge alive and ensuring that it is passed on to others rather than be censored and threatened to be wiped out," says Verheyen.

Numerous historians and research houses conducted the study for the exhibition and an independent panel reviewed the content. "As with any exhibition of this kind, it takes time to collate all the relevant research information. What is apparent, however, is that many of the manuscripts were hidden away or destroyed," says Verheyen.

While we may all believe that Leonardo Da Vinci invented the flying machine, there was a person in the ninth century in Muslim Spain who not only made a glider, but also flew it successfully. The explorers section of the exhibition also tells the story of Ibn Battuta -- the Marco Polo of the Islamic world -- who traveled for 28 years from his hometown Tangiers in Morocco, to as far as China. His diary tells us about the daily life, trading and interesting stories from the beginning of the 15th century.

In the explorers cluster, the story of the great Muslim Chinese Admiral, Zeng He, with the massive fleet of treasure ships that he discovered the world with six centuries ago is told. The Chinese expected nothing from other nations other than respect, sharing of knowledge and the exchange of gifts. When the Chinese emperor died and a new dynasty came to the fore, China turned into an introverted society. China has now made the choice to share its talents and ideas with the world and obtain insights and knowledge from the world again.

The exhibit cluster on fine technology incorporates interactive exhibits on trick devices. Stories such as that of Aladdin and his magic lamp were brought to life when ninth-century inventors such as the Banu Musa brothers tricked each other with science demonstrations. What appeared to be impossible was easily explained by the ingenious science and technology behind the trick. This way of informal learning complies with the principles applied in today's science centers.

There are also little stories of the origins of products in our daily life such as soap, perfume and coffee, which were discovered by a Muslim herdsman who observed that his cattle became hyperactive after eating the beans of a certain plant. ...

Background on the Ontario Exhibition

http://www.ontariosciencecentre.ca/calendar/default.asp?showid=824
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The Islamic history of Europe

Contributions of Muslims in the rise of western society and philosophy

http://islamonline.com/mm/video/video.php?op=showvideo&vidid=1486

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