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Al-Cordoby  
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 16 April 2011 at 3:05am
Book Review of 'Islamic Gardens and Landscapes' by D. Fairchild Ruggles

Margaret Morris

Ranging across poetry, court documents, agronomy manuals, and early garden representations and richly illustrated with pictures and site plans, Islamic Gardens and Landscapes by Dr Fairchild Ruggles is a book of impressive scope sure to interest scholars and enthusiasts alike

 
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 22 April 2011 at 5:18am
Bringing Back Golden Age of Science and Innovation

Zakri Abdul Hamid

Mr Zakri Abdul Hamid reflects in this article the thoughts that occurred to him after visiting the exhibition "1001 Inventions" in New York Hall of Science.

He concludes it by formulating a wish that the Science, Technology and Innovation Ministry in Malaysia may consider to bring the exhibition "1001 Inventions" to Malaysia to coincide with the "Year of Science" in 2012 that the ministry will organise.
 
 
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 25 April 2011 at 2:25am

Pioneer Physicians

 
David W. Tschanz

During the classical Muslim civilisation, big scientific advances in medicine were made.

Muslim doctors began by collecting all the medical observations and theories of their predecessors, especially Hippocrates and Galen, and built an original and influential tradition of medical knowledge.

This article presents selected episodes from this tradition, thus proving its richness and wide scope.

Beginning by briefly setting the historical context, the author then then to Al-Zahrawi, the "Father of Surgery", Ibn Zuhr, the Doctor of Seville, Ibn Rushd, Doctor and Philosopher, Ibn Maymun, a doctor in exile, and finally the discoverer of the "secrets of the heart", Ibn al-Nafis al-Dimashqi.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1308

 

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 29 April 2011 at 2:54am

Ibn Khaldun: Studies on his Contribution in Economy

A list of articles and research done by a collection of writers on the contributions made by Ibn Khaldun, the Tunision pioneer scholar of the 14th. century, (1332 - 1406), founder of the science of Sociology and the father of Economics

His works cover a wide range of topics, including the Rise and Fall of Empires, Microeconomics, Taxation, Economic Thought, ...

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1288

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 05 May 2011 at 2:33am

A Glimpse of Muslim Spain

During the end of the first millennium, Cordova was the intellectual well from which European humanity came to drink.

Students from France and England traveled there to sit at the feet of Muslim, Christian and Jewish scholars, to learn philosophy, science and medicine (Digest, 622).  In the great library of Cordova alone, there were some 600,000 manuscripts (Burke, 122)

This rich and sophisticated society took a tolerant view towards other faiths.  Tolerance was unheard of in the rest of Europe.  But in Muslim Spain; "thousands of Jews and Christians lived in peace and harmony with their Muslim overlords." (38)

Translation & Knowledge Transfer

In another of James Burke's works titled "Connections," he describes how the Muslims thawed out Europe from the Dark Ages. "But the event that must have done more for the intellectual and scientific revival of Europe was the fall of Toledo in Spain to the Christians, in 1105."  In Toledo the Muslims had huge libraries containing the lost (to Christian Europe) works of the Greeks and Romans along with Muslim philosophy and mathematics. "The Spanish libraries were opened, revealing a store of classics and Muslim works that staggered Christian Europeans." (123)

The intellectual plunder of Toledo brought the scholars of northern Europe like moths to a candle.  The Christians set up a giant translating program in Toledo. Using the Jews as interpreters, they translated the Muslim books into Latin.  These books included "most of the major works of Greek science and philosophy... along with many original Muslim works of scholarship." (Digest, 622)

"The intellectual community which the northern scholars found in Spain was so far superior to what they had at home that it left a lasting jealousy of Muslim culture, which was to color Western opinions for centuries" (Burke, 41)

"The subjects covered by the texts included medicine, astrology, astronomy pharmacology, psychology, physiology, zoology, biology, botany, mineralogy, optics, chemistry, physics, mathematics, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, music, meteorology, geography, mechanics, hydrostatics, navigation and history." (42)

These works alone however, didn't kindle the fire that would lead to the Renaissance. They added to Europe's knowledge, but much of it was unappreciated without a change in the way Europeans viewed the world.

Remember, Medieval Europe was superstitious and irrational. "What caused the intellectual bombshell to explode, however, was the philosophy that came with (the books)." (42) ...

http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/islamic-history/452092-a-glimpse-of-muslim-spain.html

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 17 May 2011 at 2:03pm
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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 25 May 2011 at 12:58am
The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun.

Ibn khaldun is a fourteenth century Muslim thinker who has written on many subjects, including the rise and fall of nations in his “Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History”.

His writings on economics, economic surplus and economic oriented policies are as relevant today as they were during his time ...

Ibn Khaldun opposed state involvement in trade and production activities. He thought the bureaucrats cannot understand commercial activities and they do not have the same motivations as tradesmen. He predicts relative fall of economic surplus and the decline of the countries in which the state is involved in trade and production. He sees a large army as impediment to the expansion of trade, production and economic surplus...

No one in the history of economic thought has established such a coherent general economic theory to explain and predict the rise and the fall of civilizations, nations and empires as Ibn Khaldun has formulated in his “Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History”.

His theory has the empirical and theoretical power not only to explain the consequences of government policies on production and trade, investment and specialization, but to predict the very survival of the state...


http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/politics-and-economics/452355-economic-theory-of-ibn-khaldun.html

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 27 May 2011 at 1:04am

America Fetes Muslim Civilization

WASHINGTON – In a fresh outreach bid by the Obama administration to the Muslim world, US Secretary of State has launched an exhibition on achievements of the Muslim civilization through ages.

The 1001 Inventions “honors the remarkable accomplishments of Muslims throughout history,” Clinton said in her pre-recorded message posted on the State Department’s website.

The exhibition, which has attracted more than one million over the past year, is set to open Friday, May 27, at the California Science Center in Los Angeles for a seven-month run.

Clinton said the exhibition is aiming at “celebrating a millennium of science and innovation in the Muslim world.”

The “Muslim world has a proud history of innovators,” Clinton said, citing the achievements of prominent Muslim figures like Fatima Al-Fihri who founded the world's first modern university in the ninth century.

She also praised 13th century mechanical engineer Al-Jazari whose theories on crank mechanisms were helpful in driving every plane, train and automobile in the world nowadays.

Clinton also cited Iraqi physician Ali Ibn Nafi who is also credited for inventing the diagram of the human circulatory system in 1242 CE and being the first to have accurately described the part of the cardiovascular system involving the heart and lungs.

Originally funded by the British government and launched in the United Kingdom in 2006, the “1001 Inventions” exhibition is on a five-year global tour, which has already taken it to London, Istanbul and New York.

The “1001 Inventions” exhibition highlights contributions by Muslim scholars to the development of astronomy, math, architecture, medicine and engineering.

It features exhibits spanning Muslin thinkers in different fields of medicine, optics, mathematics, astronomy, higher education, library science, personal hygiene and even the basics of aviation.

It also shows the works of some of history’s finest scientists and scholars who once extended from Spain to China and lightened the world from the seventh century.

For example, at the 13th-century observatory in Maragha, Iran, astrologists developed new models for understanding the universe which helped pave the way for Copernicus' ideas of a sun-centered solar system in 1543.

Muslim Contributions

Organizers say the exhibition’s new tour aims to show the world the contributions of the Golden Age of Muslim Civilizations in different fields of science.

"We're honored that Secretary Clinton agreed to launch our exhibition here at one of the most prestigious science museums in the world,” Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of 1001 Inventions, said in a press release.

"The goal of 1001 Inventions is to highlight the astounding contribution that Muslim civilization has made in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics and how those advances still affect our lives today.” ...

http://www.onislam.net/english/news/americas/452413-america-fetes-muslim-civilization.html

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 02 June 2011 at 1:13am

Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences

Before Ibn Khaldun (the founder of Sociology in the 14th. century), other Muslim scholars raised matters of social interest, which Ibn Khaldun corrected, improved and developed

Among them was Al-Muqaddasi, the 10th centrury Palestinian geographer who touched on various subjects that were later integrated in the field of social sciences 

http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?TaxonomyTypeID=6&TaxonomySubTypeID=43&TaxonomyThirdLevelID=-1&ArticleID=1169

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 08 June 2011 at 1:22am
The Caliphs Gave News Service and Postal System to the World 

The book, "The Timeline of History", published during the fourth quarter of the 20th century, documents historical facts by establishing a linkage between people and events, and records introduction of the first organized news service in the Muslim world by the Caliph in 650 C.E. It also mentions the availability, in 942 C.E., of approximately 1000 stations of postal and news services to the public in the Caliph's Empire. This timeline does not provide any details.

These milestones provided advanced communication between the various strata of the Muslim society in the Muslim world. The Divine message of 'Read' and spread the word of Allah, was taken to heart by the Muslim Ummah during the life of Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless and greet him, whose instructions and guidance brought a change in the lives of tribal and ethnic groups.

A cursory look at the golden age of Islam reveals that the scientific achievements made by Muslims were continuous during that era...

http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC1106-4704

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote Al-Cordoby Replybullet Posted: 15 June 2011 at 12:22am
When The Moors Ruled in Europe

This documentary describes the glorious rule of Muslim Moors in what is now Spain.

A forgotten history is remembered.

A nice video by Betany Hugges!

When the Moors Ruled in Europe#

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-768956312207897325#


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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 21 June 2011 at 3:44pm
Really nice documentary.Thank you for the link.
 
The Muslim Art of Science

THE HOUSE OF WISDOM

How Arabic Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave Us the Renaissance

By Jim al-Khalili

302 pp. The Penguin Press. $29.95.

In the thousand years between the decline of Rome and the springtime of the Renaissance, science and other branches of learning took a holiday throughout Europe. It was a benighted time in the history most of us raced through in school, skipping lightly through Charlemagne and Richard the Lion-Hearted, the Norman Conquest and the Crusades, and arriving none too soon at the time of Leonardo and Michelangelo, Columbus and da Gama, Erasmus and Luther.

Ignored for the most part in Eurocentric accounts is the parallel culture that rose in the Middle East with the swift spread of Islam after the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632. Lands from Spain to Persia and beyond fell to the Muslim sword, and in time some ambitious rulers made their palaces sanctuaries of learning, the think tanks of their day, where astronomers, mathematicians, physicians and philosophers were allowed to venture beyond the received word and to practice science as an empirical inquiry.

Jim al-Khalili, an Iraqi-born physicist who has lived in Britain since 1979, has taken on the task of elevating this neglected period to its rightful place in history. His new book, “The House of Wisdom,” reflects a depth of research, an ability to tell a fascinating story well and fair-­mindedness where minds too often are closed.

Al-Khalili positions himself with care, more or less above the clash of civilizations but with unconcealed pride in his roots. He is the son of a British mother and a Shiite Muslim father of Persian descent, and was educated in England. As a self-described atheist, he declares up front, “My interest in Islam is cultural rather than spiritual.” He prefers the more neutral term “Arabic science” to “Arab science.” Some of the notable scientists were Christians, Jews and Persians, after all, and they had in common Arabic as the lingua franca. He also reminds readers that in early Islam there was no bitter conflict between religion and science and that the Koran encouraged the close study of all God’s works.

In this spirit, the author retrieves for us several dozen all but forgotten men of science and philosophy to correct the negative stereotype of Islam “that contrasts with our Western secular, rational, tolerant and enlightened society.” A thousand years ago, he emphasizes, “the roles were reversed.”

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Rating: 0 of 0 votes Quote a well wisher Replybullet Posted: 28 July 2011 at 10:30pm
American Imams Initiate Letter Declaring Islam Compatible with Biological Evolution
 
Islamic teachers and imams in America have begun signing an open letter declaring that there is no clash between their religious faith and the theory of biological evolution.

The Imam Letter, launched this week in the US, is the latest challenge to Creationists of the three Abrahamic religions who reject evolution in favour of Creationism.

Creationism is the religious belief that all species were created in exactly the form they appear today.

Biological evolution is a scientific theory which posits that modern species have undergone major changes over time and can be traced back to earlier species from which they descended.

Muslims, Christians, and Jews who accept the theory of biological evolution believe that God can create life in any way he wishes, and this could be through a process of change over time.

The letter reads in part: "We, the undersigned Imams of the mosques, assert that the Qur’an is the primary source of spiritual inspiration and of values for us... We believe that the timeless truths of the Qur’an may comfortably coexist with the discoveries of modern science."
 
 
 
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Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilisation opens its doors (Emirates)

SHARJAH // In 953 AD, when the Sultan of Egypt demanded a pen that would not stain his clothes, the world's first fountain pen was invented and then presented to him.

The number zero, the decimal point in arithmetic, algebra, tools that measure celestial bodies, breakthroughs in medicine such as the treatment of cataracts and glaucoma, and the world's first biological weapons are a sample of the wealthy legacy of the Islamic civilisation and its greatest minds.

In the spirit of Ramadan, the Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilisation invites visitors to come for free and "seek knowledge" through its impressive 5,000 masterpieces on the history, culture and art of the Muslim world.

The Prophet Mohammed said: "Seek knowledge even as far as China, for the pursuit of knowledge is the duty of every individual Muslim."

A stroll through the science and innovation gallery of the museum, particularly by anyone who is fasting, will help gain insight into how timings of the prayers, the direction of the Qibla of Mecca, and the shape of the moon were all measured by their Muslim ancestors.

The questions to Islam's various timekeeping challenges were solved through trigonometry. Six of the world's modern trigonometric functions, such as tangent and cotangent, owe their origin and Arabic names to Muslim scholars.

"One of the most rewarding ways of suppressing the hunger of the stomach is to feed the mind and soul by seeking knowledge and understanding," said Aisha Deemas, 27, the museum's curator.

"People should take the opportunity in Ramadan to learn about the Islamic civilisation, and how it is not just our past accomplishments but about now and in the future," she said...

The story of Islam and its people can be discovered through the museum's six halls. One is dedicated to faith and the more spiritual aspect of Islam. It includes a copy of Uthman ibn Affan's Quran, the third caliph of Muslims, 644-656 AD, in Kufic script, on parchment. It gives the world a glimpse into how the first Quran looked when it was made into a book form.

Another hall of the museum is dedicated to science and innovation, with the last four touching upon every aspect of Muslim life as it evolved through the ages.

In the science hall, Ms Deemas points out the intricate workings of the "astrolabe", a measuring tool described by the Greeks but perfected by the Muslims. It helped establish the time of the day and night, measured the movements of the stars, and determined directions during travels. "Regardless of what the object was for, its creators would put great effort in its design and detail," Ms Deemas said.

The early biological weapons were only intended to be thrown and broken near an enemy. Yet the circular grenades made of pottery, with live poisonous creatures inside - including snakes or scorpions - would have intricate floral designs drawn on their surfaces.

"Islam touches every aspect of one's life," she said.

How the religion influenced domestic life is captured through the incense burners, perfume bottles, dishes, jars, and pillow cases that would be adorned with calligraphy - often a verse of blessing from the Quran - along with other designs.

Clothing, including slippers, and accessories such as jewellery, were of different designs, depending on the Islamic period and the various influences of nearby cultures.

At the same time, the often neglected "entertainment" aspect of a Muslim's life was captured through musical instruments such as the kemanche, a stringed instrument often made of tortoise shell.

Even tea, especially black tea accompanied often by milk, which is always present at every iftar, spread through Iran to the rest of the Muslim world. From inventions, to poetry, to art, there is a lot to learn at the museum about Islam, and the many ways it has shaped how Muslims celebrate important seasons and rituals.


http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/sharjah-museum-of-islamic-civilisation-opens-its-doors

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