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What Happened at the Nicea Council?

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Topic: What Happened at the Nicea Council?
Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Subject: What Happened at the Nicea Council?
Date Posted: 26 March 2008 at 3:58pm
The First Council of Nicea in 325 was an important turning point in the history of Christianity
 
Can any of our Christian friends explain in brief:
 
a) What were the main issues debated?
 
b) What were the official decisions taken?
 
c) And what is the non-official version of what happened?
 
Thanks
 
 


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Replies:
Posted By: Squeegie
Date Posted: 26 March 2008 at 9:37pm
When Constantine defeated Emperor Licinius in 323 AD he ended the persecutions against the Christian church. Shortly afterwards Christians faced a trouble from within: the Arian controversy began and threatened to divide the church. The problem began in Alexandria, it started as a debate between the bishop Alexander and the presbyter (pastor, or priest) Arius. Arius proposed that if the Father begat the Son, the latter must have had a beginning, that there was a time when he was not, and that his substance was from nothing like the rest of creation. The Council of Nicea, a gathering similar to the one described in http://www.gospelcom.net/cgi-bin/bible?language=English&version=RSV&search=&passage=Acts+15:4-22 - Acts 15:4-22 , condemned the beliefs of Arius and wrote the first version of the now famous creed proclaiming that the Son was "one in being with the Father" by use of the Greek word "homoousius."

There were some three hundred bishops gathered at the Council of Nicea from all around the world. It should be remembered that many of those present had, because of the recent persecutions, suffered and had faced threat of death for their faith. These were not wishy-washy men. It might also be remarked, that they were extremely sensitive to details of doctrine. As evidence of this, the second major concern of the Council of Nicea was to address the hotly debated question of what the proper day was to celebrate the resurrection.

The bishops of the Council stopped their ears on hearing the words of Arius and immediately rejected his teaching as distant and alien from the belief of the Church. They tore to pieces a letter of Eusebius of Nicomedia containing Arius' teaching, as well as an Arian confession of faith .

Originally seventeen of those bishops gathered at the council were unwilling to sign the Creed penned by the Council, and all but three of these were convinced to sign by the end. It is thus apparent that the Arians were a distinct minority among the bishops. Initially there was some resistance to the Nicene Creed, not because of what it said but because of how it said it. Many objected to the use of the word "homoousias" in an official document because it was not used in Scripture, despite their agreement with the meaning it conveyed.

The Council interrogated Arius using Scripture, only to find that he had a new way of interpreting every verse they brought before him. Finally, they used the argument that Arius' view had to be wrong because it was new. Athanasius says, "But concerning matters of faith, they [the bishops assembled at Nicea] did not write: 'It has been decided,' but 'Thus the Catholic Church believes.' And thereupon confessed how they believed. This they did to show that their judgement was not of more recent origin, but was in fact of Apostolic times..." (Volume 1, Faith of the Early Fathers, p338). 

It must be concluded, then, that the controversy was between a great majority who held the belief that the doctrine expressed by the Nicene Creed was ancient and Apostolic, and a minority who believed that Arius' new interpretation of the faith was correct .

Yes, this is a copy/paste, but it is a copy and paste from an internet source of a book on my bookshelf (Writings of the Early Church Fathers, Harvard Press, 1958). And I only pasted what I felt were the pertinent portions. A full copy of the proceedings of the CoN would have put the next person's post at the top of page 2. Hope my laziness won't get me in Dutch.




Posted By: Giovanni
Date Posted: 26 March 2008 at 10:02pm
   I don't mind giving those who want to know something to read.


The First Council of Nicaea

First Ecumenical Council of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03449a.htm - Catholic http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03744a.htm - Church , held in 325 on the occasion of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07256b.htm - heresy of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01718a.htm - Arius ( http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01707c.htm - Arianism ). As early as 320 or 321 St. Alexander, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - Bishop of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01302a.htm - Alexandria , convoked a council at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01302a.htm - Alexandria at which more than one hundred http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05329b.htm - Egypt and Libya http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01455e.htm - anathematized http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01718a.htm - Arius . The latter continued to officiate in his church and to recruit followers. Being finally driven out, he went to Palestine and from there to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11070a.htm - Nicomedia . During this http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14726a.htm - time St. Alexander published his "Epistola encyclica", to which http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01718a.htm - Arius replied; but henceforth it was evident that the quarrel had gone beyond the possibility of human control. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14165c.htm - Sozomen even speaks of a Council of Bithynia which addressed an http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05413a.htm - encyclical to all the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops asking them to receive the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01707c.htm - Arians into the communion of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03744a.htm - Church . This discord, and the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15546c.htm - war which soon broke out between Constantine and Licinius, added to the disorder and partly explains the progress of the religious conflict during the years 322-3. Finally Constantine, having conquered Licinius and become sole emperor, concerned himself with the re-establishment of religious peace as well as of civil order. He addressed letters to St. Alexander and to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01718a.htm - Arius http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01707c.htm - Arian controversy. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07475a.htm - Hosius of Cordova , his counsellor in religious matters, bore the imperial letter to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01302a.htm - Alexandria , but failed in his conciliatory mission. Seeing this, the emperor, perhaps advised by http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07475a.htm - Hosius , judged no remedy more apt to restore peace in the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03744a.htm - Church than the convocation of an ecumenical council. deprecating these heated controversies regarding questions of no practical importance, and advising the adversaries to agree without delay. It was evident that the emperor did not then grasp the significance of the

The emperor himself, in very respectful letters, begged the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops of every country to come promptly to Nicaea. Several http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops from outside the Roman Empire (e.g., from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11712a.htm - Persia ) came to the Council. It is not historically known whether the emperor in convoking the Council acted solely in his own name or in concert with the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12260a.htm - pope ; however, it is probable that Constantine and Sylvester came to an agreement (see POPE ST. SYLVESTER I). In order to expedite the assembling of the Council, the emperor placed at the disposal of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops the public conveyances and posts of the empire; moreover, while the Council lasted he provided abundantly for the maintenance of the members. The choice ofNicaea was favourable to the assembling of a large number of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops . It was easily accessible to the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops of nearly all the provinces, but especially to those of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01777b.htm - Asia , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14399a.htm - Syria , Palestine, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05329b.htm - Egypt , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06735a.htm - Greece , and Thrace. The sessions were held in the principal church, and in the central hall of the imperial palace. A large place was indeed http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10733a.htm - necessary to receive such an assembly, though the exact number is not known with http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03539b.htm - certainty . http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05617b.htm - Eusebius speaks of more than 250 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops , and later Arabic http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09614b.htm - manuscripts raise the figure to 2000 - an evident exaggeration in which, however, it is impossible to discover the approximate total number of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops , as well as of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12406a.htm - priests , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04647c.htm - deacons , and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01106a.htm - acolytes , of whom it is said that a great number were also present. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02035a.htm - St. Athanasius , a member of the council speaks of 300, and in his letter "Ad Afros" he says explicitly 318. This figure is almost universally adopted, and there seems to be no good reason for rejecting it. Most of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops present were Greeks; among the Latins we http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08673a.htm - know http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07475a.htm - Hosius of Cordova , Cecilian of Carthage, Mark of Calabria, Nicasius of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04794b.htm - Dijon , Donnus of Stridon in Pannonia, and the two Roman http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12406a.htm - priests , Victor and Vincentius, representing the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12260a.htm - pope . The assembly numbered among its most famous members St. Alexander of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01302a.htm - Alexandria , Eustathius of Antioch, Macarius of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08344x.htm - Jerusalem , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05623b.htm - Eusebius of Nicomedia , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05617b.htm - Eusebius of Caesarea , and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11063b.htm - Nicholas of Myra . Some had suffered during the last http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11703a.htm - persecution ; others were poorly enough acquainted with http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03712a.htm - Christian http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14580a.htm - theology . Among the members was a young http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04647c.htm - deacon , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02035a.htm - Athanasius of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01302a.htm - Alexandria , for whom this Council was to be the prelude to a life of conflict and of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06585a.htm - glory (see ST. ATHANASIUS). only

The year 325 is accepted without hesitation as that of the First Council of Nicaea. There is less agreement among our early authorities as to the month and day of the opening. In order to reconcile the indications furnished by http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14118b.htm - Socrates and by the Acts of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03555a.htm - Council of Chalcedon , this http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04636c.htm - date may, perhaps, be taken as 20 May, and that of the drawing up of the symbol as 19 June. It may be assumed without too great hardihood that the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14388a.htm - synod , having been convoked for 20 May, in the absence of the emperor held meetings of a less solemn http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03584b.htm - character until 14 June, when after the emperor's arrival, the sessions properly so called began, the symbol being formulated on 19 June, after which various matters - the paschal controversy, etc. - were dealt with, and the sessions came to an end 25 August. The Council was opened byConstantine with the greatest http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14133a.htm - solemnity . The emperor waited until all the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops had taken their seats before making his entry. He was clad in gold and covered with precious stones in the fashion of an Oriental sovereign. A chair of gold had been made ready for him, and when he had taken his place the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops seated themselves. After he had been addressed in a hurried http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01325c.htm - allocution , the emperor made an address in Latin, expressing his will that religious peace should be re-established. He had opened the session as honorary president, and he had assisted at the subsequent sessions, but the direction of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14580x.htm - theological discussions was abandoned, as was fitting, to the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03744a.htm - ecclesiastical leaders of the council. The actual president seems to have been http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07475a.htm - Hosius of Cordova , assisted by the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12260a.htm - pope's http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09118a.htm - legates , Victor and Vincentius.

The emperor began by making the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops understand that they had a greater and better business in hand than personal quarrels and interminable recriminations. Nevertheless, he had to submit to the infliction of hearing the last words of debates which had been going on previous to his arrival. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05617b.htm - Eusebius of Caesarea and his two http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01028a.htm - abbreviators , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14118b.htm - Socrates and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14165c.htm - Sozomen , as well as Rufinus and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06407b.htm - Gelasius of Cyzicus , report no details of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14580x.htm - theological discussions. Rufinus tells us only that daily sessions were held and that http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01718a.htm - Arius was often summoned before the assembly; his opinions were seriously discussed and the opposing arguments attentively considered. The http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09557a.htm - majority , especially those who were http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04215a.htm - confessors of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05752c.htm - Faith , energetically declared themselves against the impious doctrines of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01718a.htm - Arius . (For the part played by the Eusebian third party, see http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05623b.htm - Eusebius of Nicomedia . For the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04478a.htm - Creed of Eusebius, see http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05617b.htm - Eusebius of Caesarea .) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02035a.htm - St. Athanasius assures us that the activities of the Council were nowise hampered by http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04295a.htm - Constantine's presence. The emperor had by this http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14726a.htm - time http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05623b.htm - Eusebius of Nicomedia , and was under that of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07475a.htm - Hosius , to whom, as well as to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02035a.htm - St. Athanasius , may be attributed a preponderant influence in the formulation of the symbol of the First Ecumenical Council, of which the following is a literal translation:
escaped from the influence of

We http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02408b.htm - believe in one http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06608a.htm - God the Father Almighty , Maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08374c.htm - Lord Jesus Christ , the only begotten of the Father, that is, of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14322c.htm - substance [ek tes ousias] of the Father, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06608a.htm - God of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06608a.htm - God , light of light, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06608a.htm - true God of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06608a.htm - true God , begotten not made, of the same http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14322c.htm - substance with the Father [ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07449a.htm - homoousion to patri], through whom all things were made both in http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07170a.htm - heaven and on earth; who for us men and our http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13407a.htm - salvation descended, was incarnate, and was made http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09580c.htm - man , suffered and rose again the third day, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01767a.htm - ascended into heaven living and the dead. And in the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07409a.htm - Holy Ghost . Those who say: There was a http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14726a.htm - time when He was not, and He was not before He was begotten; and that He was made our of nothing (ex ouk onton); or who maintain that He is of another hypostasis or another http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14322c.htm - substance [than the Father], or that the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14142b.htm - Son of God is http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04470a.htm - created , or mutable, or subject to change, [them] the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03449a.htm - Catholic http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03744a.htm - Church http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01455e.htm - anathematizes . and cometh to judge the

The adhesion was general and enthusiastic. All the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops save five declared themselves ready to subscribe to this formula, convince that it contained the ancient http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05752c.htm - Faith of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01634a.htm - Apostolic Church . The opponents were soon reduced to two, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14622a.htm - Theonas of Marmarica and Secundus of Ptolemais, who were exiled and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01455e.htm - anathematized . http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01718a.htm - Arius and his writings were also branded with http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01455e.htm - anathema , his books were cast into the fire, and he was exiled to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07663a.htm - Illyria . The lists of the signers have reached us in a mutilated http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04211a.htm - condition , disfigured by faults of the copyists. Nevertheless, these lists may be regarded as http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02137a.htm - authentic . Their study is a problem which has been repeatedly dealt with in modern times, in http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06484b.htm - Germany and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01505x.htm - England , in the critical editions of H. Gelzer, H. Hilgenfeld, and O. Contz on the one hand, and C. H. Turner on the other. The lists thus constructed give respectively 220 and 218 names. With information derived from one source or another, a list of 232 or 237 fathersknown to have been present may be constructed.

Other matters dealt with by this council were the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05228a.htm - controversy as to the time of celebrating Easter and the Meletian http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13529a.htm - schism . The former of these two will be found treated under http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05228a.htm - EASTER CONTROVERSY ; the latter under MELETIUS OF LYCOPOLIS.

Of all the Acts of this Council, which, it has been maintained, were numerous, only three fragments have reached us: the http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3801.htm - creed , or symbol, given above (see also http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11049a.htm - NICENE CREED ); the http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3802.htm - canons ; the http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3803.htm - synodal decree . In reality there never were any official acts besides these. But the accounts of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05617b.htm - Eusebius , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14118b.htm - Socrates , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14165c.htm - Sozomen , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14574b.htm - Theodoret , and Rufinus may be considered as very important sources of historical information, as well as some data preserved by http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02035a.htm - St. Athanasius , and a history of the Council of Nicaea written in Greek in the fifth century by http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06407b.htm - Gelasius of Cyzicus . There has long existed a dispute as to the number of the canons of First Nicaea. All the collections of canons, whether in Latin or Greek, composed in the fourth and fifth centuries agree in attributing to this Council only the twentycanons, which we possess today. Of these the following is a brief résumé:

  • Canon 1: On the admission, or support, or expulsion of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04049b.htm - clerics http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15446a.htm - violence . mutilated by choice or by
  • Canon 2: Rules to be observed for http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11279a.htm - ordination , the avoidance of undue haste, the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04737b.htm - deposition of those guilty of a grave fault.
  • Canon 3: All members of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04049b.htm - clergy are forbidden to dwell with any http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15687b.htm - woman , except a mother, sister, or aunt.
  • Canon 4: Concerning episcopal elections.
  • Canon 5: Concerning the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05678a.htm - excommunicate .
  • Canon 6: Concerning http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11549a.htm - patriarchs and their http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08567a.htm - jurisdiction .
  • Canon 7: confirms the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13055c.htm - right of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08344x.htm - Jerusalem to enjoy certain http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07462a.htm - honours .
  • Canon 8: concerns the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11138a.htm - Novatians .
  • Canon 9: Certain http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14004b.htm - sins known after http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11279a.htm - ordination involve invalidation.
  • Canon 10: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09001b.htm - Lapsi who have been http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11279a.htm - ordained knowingly or surreptitiously must be excluded as soon as their http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08170a.htm - irregularity is known.
  • Canon 11: Penance to be imposed on http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01624b.htm - apostates of the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11703a.htm - persecution of Licinius.
  • Canon 12: Penance to be imposed on those who upheld Licinius in his http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15546c.htm - war on the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03712a.htm - Christians .
  • Canon 13: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07783a.htm - Indulgence to be granted to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05678a.htm - excommunicated http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11726a.htm - persons in danger of death.
  • Canon 14: Penance to be imposed on http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03430b.htm - catechumens who had weakened under http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11703a.htm - persecution .
  • Canon 15: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops , http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12406a.htm - priests , and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04647c.htm - deacons are not to pass from one church to another.
  • Canon 16: All http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04049b.htm - clerics are forbidden to leave their church. Formal prohibition for http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11279a.htm - ordain for their http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05001a.htm - diocese a http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04049b.htm - cleric belonging to another http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05001a.htm - diocese .
  • Canon 17: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04049b.htm - clerics are forbidden to lend at interest.
  • Canon 18: recalls to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04647c.htm - deacons their subordinate position with regard to http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12406a.htm - priests .
  • Canon 19: Rules to be observed with regard to adherents of http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11589a.htm - Paul of Samosata who wished to return to the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03744a.htm - Church .
  • Canon 20: On http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14335a.htm - Sundays and during the Paschal season http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12345b.htm - prayers should be said standing.
The business of the Council having been finished Constantine celebrated the twentieth anniversary of his http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01095a.htm - accession to the empire, and invited the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops to a splendid repast, at the end of which each of them received rich presents. Several days later the emperor commanded that a final session should be held, at which he assisted in order to exhort the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm - bishops to work for the maintenance of peace; he commended himself to their http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12345b.htm - prayers , and authorized the fathers to return to their http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05001a.htm - dioceses . The greater number hastened to take advantage of this and to bring the resolutions of the council to the http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08673a.htm - knowledge of their provinces.


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May the Love of God be With you.


Posted By: Janet Waters
Date Posted: 26 March 2008 at 11:22pm
http://www.reference.com/search?r=13&q=Homoousis

The Origin of the Formula

The basis for the doctrine of the Trinity is found in New Testament passages that associate the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Two such passages are Matthew's http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Great_Commission - Great Commission : "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" and http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Paul_of_Tarsus - St Paul 's: "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all" ().

In 325, the http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/First_Council_of_Nicaea - Council of Nicaea adopted a term for the relationship between the Son and the Father that from then on was seen as the hallmark of orthodoxy; it declared that the Son is "of the same substance" ( http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Ousia - ὁμοούσιος ) as the Father. This was further developed into the formula "three persons, one substance." The answer to the question "What is God?" indicates the one-ness of the divine nature, while the answer to the question "Who is God?" indicates the three-ness of "Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

The Council of Nicaea was reluctant to adopt language not found in Scripture, and ultimately did so only after http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Arius - Arius showed how all strictly biblical language could also be interpreted to support his belief that there was a time when the Son did not exist. In adopting non-biblical language, the council's intent was to preserve what the Church had always believed: that the Son is fully God, coeternal with God the Father and God the Holy Spirit.

"The Confession of the Council of Nicaea said little about the Holy Spirit. The doctrine of the divinity and personality of the Holy Spirit was developed by http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Athanasius - Athanasius (c 293 - 373) in the last decades of his life. He both defended and refined the Nicene formula. By the end of the 4th century, under the leadership of http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Basil_of_Caesarea - Basil of Caesarea , http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Gregory_of_Nyssa - Gregory of Nyssa , and http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Gregory_of_Nazianzus - Gregory of Nazianzus (the http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Cappadocian_Fathers - Cappadocian Fathers ), the doctrine had reached substantially its current form.



"Opposing http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Nontrinitarian - nontrinitarian positions held by some groups include http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Binitarianism - Binitarianism (two deities/persons/aspects), http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Unitarianism - Unitarianism (one deity/person/aspect), the http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Godhead_%28Latter_Day_Saints%29 - Godhead (Latter Day Saints) (three separate beings, one in purpose) and http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Modalism - Modalism ( http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Oneness - Oneness )."




Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 27 March 2008 at 1:09am
Thanks for the background, though it was meant to be a brief summary for all people to understand without going into too many details
 
Is it true that the 4 "official" Gospels were chosen at the Council of Nicea from among many Gospels?
 
If that was the case, what were the criteria set by the Church in selecting what was to be the official Bible?
 
And how many Gospels were considered?
 
Thanks
 
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: LtTony
Date Posted: 27 March 2008 at 12:51pm
 
What point are you trying to make, Al?  If there is something you want to say then just say it.  How would you answer your questions?
 
You write, "though it was meant to be a brief summary for all people to understand without going into too many details," then ask for some details:
 
Is it true that the 4 "official" Gospels were chosen at the Council of Nicea from among many Gospels?
 
If that was the case, what were the criteria set by the Church in selecting what was to be the official Bible?
 
And how many Gospels were considered?
 
Following: a) What were the main issues debated?  b) What were the official decisions taken?  c) And what is the non-official version of what happened?

Are we to answer briefly, then you will provide some details?




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"“We love death. The US loves life. That is the difference between us two.” Osama Bin Laden


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 27 March 2008 at 2:28pm
I'm learning the Christian point of view, not giving details
 
To copy and paste a long article with too many details doesn't give a clear picture of the Council of Nicea, which seems to have been a major turning point in the history of Christianity
 
Were there more than 4 Gospels considered by the Council?
 
If so, what was the criteria followed in confirming these 4 gospels as being the official Gospel?
 
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: Damo808
Date Posted: 27 March 2008 at 4:23pm
Originally posted by Al-Cordoby

I'm learning the Christian point of view, not giving details
 
To copy and paste a long article with too many details doesn't give a clear picture of the Council of Nicea, which seems to have been a major turning point in the history of Christianity
 
Were there more than 4 Gospels considered by the Council?
 
If so, what was the criteria followed in confirming these 4 gospels as being the official Gospel?
 
 
 
 
 Hi Al
 
  There were many manuscripts outwith the gospels, though the ones cannonised by the Church were at the time  the most commonly referenced, and contained the centrality of what was essential in terms of Jesus' nature, His teaching, His significance and His ministry. The other texts (from THAT time) held no contradictory elements in them which contradicted the Gospel accounts, only they were not believed to be 'inspired'. Many were works which glorified him homilies etc. It


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out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be the ruler in Israel: and his going forth is from the beginning, from the days of eternity. Micah 5:5


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 28 March 2008 at 1:42am
Thanks Damo
 
Were the number of gospels considered at the Council of Nicea in the tens or in the hundreds?
 
Also, it was mentioned that some Christian sects at the time were being persecuted for their beliefs
 
Which sects were they?
 
And who did the persecution?
 
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: Damo808
Date Posted: 29 March 2008 at 7:40pm
Originally posted by Al-Cordoby

Thanks Damo
 
Were the number of gospels considered at the Council of Nicea in the tens or in the hundreds?
 
Also, it was mentioned that some Christian sects at the time were being persecuted for their beliefs
 
Which sects were they?
 
And who did the persecution?
 
 
 
 
As far as i'm aware i think there were around 20 texts which could be classed as gospels, including those of the 4 Biblical accounts. Ofcourse there was as i said , in existence other literature though more homilies rather than gospels, though do not conflict with that of biblical accounts. The other gospels are the gnostic texts, which date to a time considerably later than the biblical cannons.
 
 As for Christian percecution, after the Edict of Milan there was freedom of religious practice for all not only christians.


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out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be the ruler in Israel: and his going forth is from the beginning, from the days of eternity. Micah 5:5



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