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Science and Islam:The Empire of Reason

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Topic: Science and Islam:The Empire of Reason
Posted By: a well wisher
Subject: Science and Islam:The Empire of Reason
Date Posted: 11 December 2009 at 7:15pm
Professor Jim Al-Khalili presents Science and Islam
 
He travels to North Syria to discover how, a thousand years ago, the great astronomer and mathematician Al-Biruni estimated the size of the earth to within a few hundred miles of the correct figure.
He discovers how medieval Islamic scholars helped turn the magical and occult practice of alchemy into modern chemistry.
In Cairo, he tells the story of the extraordinary physicist Ibn al-Haytham, who helped establish the modern science of optics and proved one of the most fundamental principles in physics - that light travels in straight lines.

Prof Al-Khalili argues that these scholars are among the first people to insist that all scientific theories are backed up by careful experimental observation, bringing a rigour to science that didn't really exist before.
 
An interesting documentary
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRrehLDyZv0 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRrehLDyZv0



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah



Replies:
Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 12 December 2009 at 12:45am
Very interesting
 
Did you see The Nileometer in episode 2 to measure the level of water in the Nile?
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU12EjqPBqQ&annotation_id=annotation_643544&feature=iv - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU12EjqPBqQ&annotation_id=annotation_643544&feature=iv
 
 
 
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 12 December 2009 at 1:02am
I just watched Al-Biruni's calculations at the start of episode 3 to calculate the circumference of the earth with a degree of accuracy of 99% (his estimation was only off by 1%) 1,000 years ago:
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=091mlMeOHqo&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=091mlMeOHqo&feature=related
 
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 12 December 2009 at 1:44pm
Yes isn't this all amazing esp the astrolabe of Al Biruni and his ingenuous calculations...The rudimentary classification of the basis of chemistry ie the periodic table  for the first time by Ar Razi who refuted Aristotle's theory of four classical elements..very interesting...
 
The nilometer looks so cool...
 
Did you see  Ibn al-Haitham's optics experiment....the way he was able to arrive at the principle of vision by considering  the existing theory in a radicle way which merged the principles of mathematics and physics.... some people call him the first real scientist since he is said to be the pioneer of the scientific method....simply amazing
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DeRotXIIMk&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DeRotXIIMk&feature=related
 
I read somewhere that Ibn al-Haitham believed that human beings are flawed and only God is perfect. To discover the truth about nature, Ibn a-Haitham reasoned, one had to eliminate human opinion and allow the universe to speak for itself through physical experiments. "The seeker after truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and, following his natural disposition, puts his trust in them," the first scientist wrote, "but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them, the one who submits to argument and demonstration."
 
The power of critical thinking and deep faith...Subhan Allah
 
I think there is a documentary on astronomy and Islam as well called the Power of Doubt... I am looking forward to it....have you seen it?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 12 December 2009 at 1:53pm
Originally posted by a well wisher

 
I think there is a documentary on astronomy and Islam as well called the Power of Doubt... I am looking forward to it....have you seen it?
 
 
Yes, it's also an excellent documentary excellent

Islam and Science: The Power of Doubt

In this BBC episode, Prof. Jim Al-Khalily travels to Italy to find where Copernicous got the basis of the astronomical works he presented to the world

He discovers links going back to Al-Tusi, Ibn Al-Shatir and Al-Battany, three renowned Islamic astronomers from the 12th, 13th & 14th centuries

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9JP7smRd6-c&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9JP7smRd6-c&feature=related

(8 minutes)

A very interesting program - Highly recommended
 
We actually have a gold mine of similar cases in the Muslim scientific heritage, maybe we could shed more light In-Shaa-Allah ....
 
I followed a 25-lecture course a few months ago on this topic, and these videos are very useful to recall the information and further appreciate the effort done by these pioneer Muslim scientists
 
The last video from the above series goes into the details of why Islamic sciences eventually declined but ended with a look to the increasing interest in scientific research in the Muslim world today, including advanced genetic research in a country like Iran
 
There is hope .....
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 13 December 2009 at 7:55pm

Brilliant...such a fine documentary...it was so interesting and well presented...I think even to know the limitations of science one must be a part of living science....I couldnt agree more that science is the universal language of the human race.... and nothing is of higher value than Truth itself..

They reconciled religion with reason and questioned the Greek tradition with courage and realized the fundamental contradiction...heliocentrism was a possibility in an age of geocentric beliefs starting with ibn al Haitham and perfected by al Tusi without the use of a telescope...phenomenal...
 
 
The emphasis on learning was placed in the time of our Prophet Muhammad pbuh only when he taught in the mosque;these mosques later evolved into the first universities as we can see from the Damascus sundial example...The Quranic command  for observation, reason and contemplation "see", "think" and "contemplate led Muslims to develop an early scientific method based on these principles....They percieved intellectual pursuit and knowledge as imperative religious duty and thus worship...  Islam lays great stress on self improvement of the individual and betterment of society and makes the pursuit of knowledge a social as well as personal obligation and thats why they turned to the practical sciences like mathematics, chemistry, astronomy and medicine first.....Arithmetic was desirable because it enabled them to calculate inheritances, count days and years... geometry helped in finding the direction of qiblah, and pilgrimage routes and astronomy was needed to fix the time of years, calcute the beginning of months esp ramadan....The demand by faith for order and perfection led to their meticulous quest for the right answers...it is so inspiring...In theory, and to some extent practice, while religion and science are two different epistemic categories in the Western mind, they are, in the Muslim eye, parts of a continuum complementing each other....The fertile scholarship with the rational ,emperical method and their relentless single minded dedication to absolute accuracy because they took pursuit of knowledge as ibadah or worship...
 
Did you see this amazing Maragha Observatory and Al Tusi's ingenuous armillary arc...amazing how he was led by circumstances to be at the right place at the right time...grandson of Ghengiz Khan Halagu founded the observatory in Maragha where Nasir ud din Tusi worked...one can only imagine what  it would had been like at that time...simply amazing
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gjs0kqEb75k&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gjs0kqEb75k&feature=related
 
This "Maragha Revolution or "Scientific Revolution before the Renaissance"overthrew the geocentric view of universe and led to the birth of modern scientific age... the Tusi-couple showed that linear motion could also be produced by applying circular motions...
 
Only Islamic astronomers insisted on the need to match the mathematics with the real world surrounding them which gradually evolved from a reality based on Aristotelian physics to one based on an empirical and mathematical physics after the work of Ibn al-Shatir. ...It was the rejection of the Ptolemaic model on empirical rather than philosophical grounds by Ibn al-Shatir and the development of a non-Ptolemaic model by Ibn al-Shatir that was mathematically identical to the heliocentric Copernical model.. but in this documentary they did not mention the Andalusian Revolt... Ibn Rushd also rejected the eccentric deferents introduced by Ptolemy... He rejected the Ptolemaic model and instead argued for a strictly concentric model of the universe...
 
Western science no doubt owes a deep debt to Greco-Islamic legacy but it is alleged that Islamic science was the derived science which followed the greek tradition blindly and added nothing to the scientific method...however in all periods of intense scientific work , one first builds on what one inherets which is followed by the age of maturity when doubts are raised on the teachings of old masters followed by a break....such a break came with the rise of observation and experiment, early in the sciences of islam with ibn al Haitham and al Biruni which was so clearly demostrated in this documentary...Ibn al Haitham also described the  early version of Occam's razor which is so popular in today's science....he had such a fierce brilliance...Subhan Allah...leaves one in utter awe 
 
It is a fact how Europe built up on this rich legacy and translated arabic books to reach their objectives...its sad how so many Islamic  libraries were destroyed...its tragic how we lost communication and financial constraints led to isolation of our scientific enterprise and thus its decay...Science sadly does follow the money...I think we are to blame as well...we somehow have lost the zeal and faith our ancestors had...yes its true that most of us including me are unaware of their rich ISLAMIC HERITAGE...I just came across this a few years ago as well but I would blame myself because there was no excuse for me to not know my roots....I simply failed to prioritize my life which i think is the current dilemma of the majority of muslims....Although there is this role of colonialism which shaped the mind of societies to rewrite history on their terms but I think it was our own lackadaisical attitude towards truth as well to accept their version...our heritage gives us this vivid sense of self identity and power of reason...we should have exercised those capacities rather than being dormant doormats...I am sorry if I sound a little harsh but this documentary was like soul food that reminded me about our rich legacy and our struggling present....but like you said there is still hope....Insha Allah...
 
 
 
 
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 15 December 2009 at 11:53am
Originally posted by a well wisher

Did you see this amazing Maragha Observatory and Al Tusi's ingenuous armillary arc...amazing how he was led by circumstances to be at the right place at the right time...grandson of Ghengiz Khan Halagu founded the observatory in Maragha where Nasir ud din Tusi worked...one can only imagine what  it would had been like at that time...simply amazing
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gjs0kqEb75k&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gjs0kqEb75k&feature=related
 
This "Maragha Revolution or "Scientific Revolution before the Renaissance"overthrew the geocentric view of universe and led to the birth of modern scientific age... the Tusi-couple showed that linear motion could also be produced by applying circular motions...
 
 
Yes, a very interesting program
 
This is another good BBC documentary:
 
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=891 - Bringing to Life the Islamic History of Europe: A Video Documentary Testimony

The video documentary produced by the BBC in 2005 An Islamic History of Europe, by the famous TV presenter Rageh Omaar, reveals the surprising hidden story of Europe's Islamic past

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=891 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=891

A trip to Spain, Sicily & France to discover the impact of Islam on Science, Art and Philosophy

 
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 16 December 2009 at 1:01pm

Yes this documentary is very interesting as well...one cannot stop looking at the beautiful and breathtaking mosque of Cardoba and the Alhambra palace ...simply exquisite...

 
This is an older documentary made on the same theme on Islam in Europe....when the East met West and the legacy they left behind...the LA CONVEVENCIA or peaceful coexistence of the Muslims, Christian and Jews and their interculture and interfaith co-operation left such a rich,powerful and exceptional influence...It is so inspiring to see this golden era of religious tolerance and beauty....
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E5dFy06nLuQ&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E5dFy06nLuQ&feature=related
 
The Muslim contribution to Medicine is tremendous...did you see the surgical tools they invented and Ibn Nafis 's detailed outline of the pulmonary circulation is so ahead of its time although its a fact that they still credit Sir William Harvey for discovering it in the medical textbooks...
 
 
 
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 19 December 2009 at 8:21am
I found another interesting documentary which is part of the series  presented by Professor Jim Al-Khalili on Science and Islam called
 
SCIENCE & ISLAM | The language of science
 
This is the first part of a set of six which explains how medieval Islamic scholars initiated the Translation Movement in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad which translated many older classics into the Arabic language and led to the great leap in scientific knowledge that took place in the Islamic world between the 8th and 14th centuries...Professor Al-Khalili  travels to Eqypt, Syria, Iran and North Africa to discover the Golden Age of Arabic science and great figures like Al Khwarizmi , Al Zahrawi and Ibn Sina [Avicenna]...Professor Al-Khalili even mentions Ibn Washiyah who cracked the code for the Eqyptian Heiroglyphics and was able to partly decipher them eight centuries earlier than Champillion deciphered Rosetta Stone...
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-n2BoPE2GE&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-n2BoPE2GE&feature=related
 
Truly amazing...


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 21 December 2009 at 12:31am
Yes, that was also a good program

Science Conflicting with Religion?

Not for Muslims!

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=247 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=247



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 23 December 2009 at 9:11am

The Influence of Islamic Philosophy and Ethics on The Development of Medicine During the Islamic Renaissance

Although Islamic philosophy is of great diversity and richness, it is characterized by certain features that are of special significance for both an understanding of it and for an appraisal of its impact on the world at large.

One must remember that this philosophy existed at a time in which strict obedience to the Islamic religion was customary.

Islamic philosophy was also concerned with the basic issue of the relation between human reasoning and the revelations provided to the Muslims in the holy Qur’an. As a result, all sorts of sciences were studied in order to determine that relation between the universe and the human being on one hand, and the creator of that universe, Allah Most High, on the other hand.

The impact of Islamic philosophy on the Renaissance was enormous. First and foremost, Islamic philosophy originates from a time when Islam had a great influence on everyday life. The mere fact that Islamic philosophy was able to operate in such a fundamentalist environment greatly affected the Renaissance.

Secondly, in general, Islamic philosophy always leads to one main conclusion, that the power of Allah Most High is supreme and that His words are the absolute truth (although through different understandings).

Thirdly, many of the ideas of Renaissance philosophy are based on ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian texts—which the Muslims translated—as well as the philosophy of the Muslims themselves. The Muslims were responsible for creating the foundation for the “building” of philosophy that the Renaissance thinkers would later “construct.”

Finally, Islamic philosophy greatly encouraged science, particularly mathematics and medicine. Without philosophy’s constant encouraging of scientific development, the large number of discoveries made by the Muslims may never have taken place.

I will take medicine as an example and I will highlight the reasons for the excellent success of those Muslims in the field of medicine. Medical ethics is one of the hottest issues in medicine these days. Ethics can be described as a sub-branch of applied philosophy, where one seeks the right and the wrong (the good and the bad) set of behaviors in any given circumstance. I will try to shed light on the influence of Islamic medical ethics on the advancement of medicine during that Islamic golden era...

Therefore, what were the factors behind the success of the Muslim scientists? How did Islamic philosophy encourage them to be leaders in many branches of science, especially in the medical sciences?

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah/LSELayout&cid=1158658520990#I - I. Islam and the Promotion of Science

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah/LSELayout&cid=1158658520990#II - II. The Attitude and Contribution of the State

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah/LSELayout&cid=1158658520990#III - III. Islamic Physicians

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah/LSELayout&cid=1158658520990#IV - IV. Medical Ethics in Islam

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah/LSELayout&cid=1158658520990 - http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah/LSELayout&cid=1158658520990


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 10 January 2010 at 10:08am
How Islamic inventors changed the world
 
From coffee to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many innovations that we in the West take for granted. Here are 20 of their most influential innovations:

(1) The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry.

He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Makkah and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645.

It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic “qahwa” became the Turkish “kahve” then the Italian “caffé” and then English “coffee”.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/how-islamic-inventors-changed-the-world-469452.html - http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/how-islamic-inventors-changed-the-world-469452.html


 



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 12 January 2010 at 3:03am
Hospitals in the Islamic Civilization

During the Islamic civilization, hospitals had much developed and attained specific characteristics:

1. Secular: Hospitals served all peoples irrespective of color, religion, or background. They were run by the government rather than by the church, and their Directors were commonly physicians assisted by persons who had no religious color. In hospitals, physicians of all faiths worked together with one aim in common: the well-being of patients.

2. Separate wards: Patients of different sexes occupied separate wards. Also different diseases especially infectious ones, were allocated different wards.

3. Separate nurses: Male nurses were to take care of male patients, and vice versa.

4. Baths and water supplies: Praying five times a day is an important pillar of Islam. Sick or healthy, it is an Islamic obligation; of course physical performance depends on one's health, even he can pray while laying in bed. Before praying, washing of face, head, hands, and feet must be done, if possible. For certain conditions, a bath is obligatory. Therefore, these hospitals had to provide the patients and employees with plentiful water supply and with bathing facilities.

5. Practicing physicians: Only qualified physicians were allowed by law to practice medicine. In 931 A.D., the Caliph Al-Mugtadir from the Abbasid dynasty, ordered the Chief Court-Physician Sinan Ibn-Thabit to screen the 860 physicians-of Baghdad, and only those qualified were granted license to practice (Hamarneh 1962). The counterpart of Ibn- Tbabit, Abu-Osman Sai'd Ibn-Yaqub was ordered to do the same in Damascus, Mecca, and Medina. The latter two cities were in need for such an act because of hundreds of thousands of pilgrims visiting them every year. This was to prevent taking advantage of these pilgrims and to curb the spread of diseases among them.

6. Medical schools: The hospital was not only a place for treating patients, but also for educating medical students, interchanging medical knowledge, and developing medicine as a whole. To the main hospitals, there were attached expensive libraries containing the most up-to-date books, auditoria for meetings and lectures, and housing for students and house-staff.

7. Proper records of patients: For the first time in history, these hospitals kept records of patients and their medical care.

8. Pharmacy: During the Islamic era, the science and the profession of pharmacy had developed to an outstanding degree. The Arabic materia medica became so rich and new drugs and compounds were introduced because the Muslims had contact with almost all the known world at that time, either through control or trade. Their ships sailed to China and the Philippines, and their convoys made trades with black Africa, Europe and Asia. Chemistry became an advanced science, and there were means and need for a specialization called pharmacy.

Thus, the main Arabian hospitals were models for medieval hospitals built later in Europe. They were rather medical schools to which those seeking advanced medical knowledge, from the East or West, attended.


Contributions Of Islam To Medicine - Ezzat Abouleish



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 12 January 2010 at 1:07pm
Ingenious Devices
 
 I was fervently attached to the pursuit of this subtle science [of machines] and persisted in the endeavor to arrive at the truth. 'The eyes of opinion looked to me to distinguish myself in this beloved science. Types of machines of great importance came to my notice, offering possibilities for types of marvelous control.  Bath al-Zaman al-Jazari, Turkey, 1206.
 
Using water to tell the time

The idea of using water pressure to achieve automation reached its pinnacle in the development of clocks. The need to know what time to pray was a crucial spur in Islam to the development of water clocks which could keep the time through day and night. Water clocks such as that of al-Zarqali in Toledo (11th century) became the wonders of the age.

One extraordinary device is a water clock in the shape of an elephant, designed by an engineer called Badi al-Zaman al-Jazarj and illustrated and described in his Book of Ingenious Devices (1206). The elephant clock combined water principles' from Archimedes with an Indian elephant and water timer, Chinese dragons, an Egyptian phoenix, a Persian carpet and Arabian figures.

Al-Jazari was born in the region of al-Jazira between the Tigris and Euphrates in the 12th century. This was a-time when the Turkic-speaking peoples were already beginning to make this part of the world their own, and in 1174 he went to work for the Banu Artuq, the rulers of Amid (now known as Diyar Bakir in southern Turkey). There may have been many engineers as talented and as innovative as al-Jazari, but he was also a skilled communicator who could write and draw too. He must have been an old man, though, when the Prince of Amid, Nasir al-Din Mahmud, ordered him to write his book, for within a few months of completing it he was dead.

Researchers are just beginning to go through this book, which seems to be the culmination of Islamic mechanical technology, to try out some of these machines - either on computers or by building models according to al-Jazari's designs. What they are finding is beginning to cause quite a stir.

Excerpted from the book "Science & Islam" by Ehsan Masood.

http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC1001-4032 - http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC1001-4032


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 13 January 2010 at 1:51pm

 True religion cannot stand against useful progress

True religion cannot stand against useful progress. If history has recorded on account of a few religions and their men their stand against progress, it is because they were not the true religion of Allah. They were deviated and changed, and lost their authenticity and superiority. They were instantaneous religions which Allah had not promised to preserve.

As to Islam, Allah willed that it be the comprehensive and eternal message for all humanity after it attained full maturity, and deserved that this message be revealed to it. Thus it is no surprise that it was based from its beginning upon the respect of the mind and intellect, opposed to imitation and inertia in favour of science and wisdom, and dependent on proof and evidence, and the glorification of the benefits of science and its people, the return to the men of knowledge and expertise, and the incitement to work and action and dread of slackness and idleness.

It is also no surprise that we find that the eternal Book of Islam, the Book of Allah tells us in the story of the father of Humankind (Adam) about science as the first requisite of representation of Allah on earth, and that it is thanks to it that Adam surpassed angels.

It also tells us in the story of Noah about the manufacture of boats, and the story of David about ironwork and the making of armoury, and in the story of Suleiman about the genie making for him anything that he wants. It also tells us about economic planning - over a period of fourteen years- in the story of Joseph. It also tells us about the military and civilian uses of iron, in a special Surah named The Iron.

We also find the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad (peace be upon him), confirming the results of observation and experimentation in the matters of life even if it contradicted his own personal view, as in the case of the pollination of palm trees, that is when he said, "You are more knowledgeable in the matters of the world."

It is also no surprise that under the umbrella of such religion that many states have established themselves and eventually inherited the two of the largest empires which the world has ever known. They were established by some of the followers of the Messenger of Allah on the strongest bases and the sturdiest pillars, including a combination of religion and worldly matters. There grew under its sovereignty a civilisation of gigantic buildings and high pillars which benefited from the heritage of the past, refined it, improved upon it, and added to it its own contributions and creation. It did not find anything in Islam that would hinder its advancement, or delay its progress. In fact, it found in it encouragement which made it multiply its efforts and activities. It found in it also security that holds whether it remained or strayed from its path. It is no surprise that the French philosopher and poet Gustave Lebon wrote, "The Arabs are the first to have taught the world how the independence of thought agrees with the uprightness of religion!"

Do you think - after all this - that we need to ask, "What is the position of Islam regarding civilisation and evolution? Or Science and progress?


http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/Q_awake/ch4p5.htm - Toward A Sound Awakening - Yusuf Al-Qaradawi



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 18 January 2010 at 2:55pm
Jim Al-Khalili: Islam's House of Wisdom will rise again

Quantum physicist Jim Al-Khalili grew up in Iraq and has become an expert on the golden age of Islamic science. He explains to Sanjida O'Connell how science in the Muslim world will flourish once more

Few westerners know about the golden age of Arabic science. How did it come about?

The Arab empire was hugely powerful by late 8th and early 9th century; its rulers were getting taxes from across the empire and had money to spend on translations and patronage of scholarship. About this time the House of Wisdom was set up in Baghdad by one of the Abbasid caliphs, al-Ma'mun. It began as a translation house, translating Greek texts into Arabic and rapidly started to attract the greatest minds in the Islamic world, while Arabic became the international language of science. There was also a strong influence from Persia; an Arab scholar once said, "We Arabs have all the words but you Persians have all the ideas."

In the west there is a widely held misconception that the Islamic world did no more than act as steward of Greek science

In fact, an incredible number of important and original advances were made by Arab scientists, who were the first to undertake real science - theory and experimentation - several hundred years before the scientific revolution in Europe.

One thousand years ago the Muslim world was doing curiosity-driven science ...
 
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527431.200-jim-alkhalili-islams-house-of-wisdom-will-rise-again.html - http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527431.200-jim-alkhalili-islams-house-of-wisdom-will-rise-again.html
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 21 January 2010 at 2:06pm

Fountain Pen

An outstanding publicist, confidant and companion of Al-Mu'izz, the Egyptian sultan in 953 CE, wrote a book called "The Book of Audiences and Concurrence". His name was Qadi abu Hanifah al-Nu'man ibn Muhammad and here he recounts al-Mu'izz commissioning the construction of a fountain pen.

"We wish to construct a pen which can be used for writing without having recourse to an ink-holder and whose ink will be contained inside it. A person can fill it with ink and write whatever he likes. The writer can put it in his sleeve or anywhere he wishes and it will not stain nor will any drop of ink leak out of it. The ink will flow only when there is an intention to write. We are unaware of anyone previously ever constructing (a pen such as this) and an indication of 'penetrating wisdom' to whoever contemplates it and realises its exact significance and purpose." I exclaimed, "Is this possible?" He replied, "It is possible if God so wills."

The story continues that a few days later the craftsman brought a pen which wrote when it was filled with ink. The pen could be turned upside down and tipped from side to side without any ink being spilt. The pen did not release the ink except in writing and it didn't leave stains on hands or clothes. Lastly, it didn't need an ink pot because it had its own, hidden away.


1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World - Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 22 January 2010 at 12:55am

London Shows Islam Science Contributions

London's Science Museum - 21 January to 25 April 2010
 
LONDON – A British exhibition showed on Thursday, January 21, the debt owed by European scholars to their Muslim counterparts on everything from water pumps and blood circulation to engineering and map-making.

"As we move into a new global world, we need to respect and recognize the contributions of all other races and cultures into what we have today," Professor Salim Al-Hassani, the organizer of the exhibition, told Agence France-Presse (AFP).

"This exhibition demonstrates that."

The "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World" exhibition is hosted at London's Science Museum and runs from the 21 January to 25 April.

It features exhibits spanning from about 700 to 1700 based on hundreds of manuscripts from North Africa to China.

The exhibition aims to highlight contributions by Muslim scholars to the development of astronomy, maths, architecture, medicine and engineering that have been largely ignored in European history.

For example, at the 13th-century observatory in Maragha, Iran, astrologists developed new models for understanding the universe which helped pave the way for Copernicus' ideas of a sun-centered solar system in 1543.

Abbas Bin Firnas, a ninth-century scholar, also performed one of the first recorded human flights when he leapt from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a glider stiffened with wooden struts.

Iraqi physician Ali Ibn Nafi is credited for inventing the diagram of the human circulatory system in 1242 CE and being the first to have accurately described the part of the cardiovascular system involving the heart and lungs ...

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1262372606144&pagename=Zone-English-News/NWELayout#ixzz0dJW02mOa - Read more ...


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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 24 January 2010 at 2:58pm

"In time We shall make them fully
understand Our signs in the farthest horizons
and within themselves, so that it will become clear
to them that this [revelation] is indeed the
truth. Is it not enough to know that your
Sustainer is a witness to everything? "

                                          Al-Qur'an 41 : 53

In every age there have been Muslims who have followed the advice of the Qur'an and made surprising discoveries. If one looks to the works of Muslim scientists of many centuries ago, one will find them full of quotations from the Qur'an. These works state that they did research in such a place, looking for something. And they affirm that the reason they looked in such and such a place was that the Qur'an pointed them in that direction. For example, the Qur'an mentions man's origin and then tells the reader, "Research it!" It gives the reader a hint where to look and then states that one should find out more about it. This is the kind of thing that Muslims today largely seem to overlook - but not always, as illustrated in the following example.

A few years ago, a group of men in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia collected all of the verses in the Qur'an which discuss embryology – the growth of the human being in the womb. They said, "Here is what the Qur'an says. Is it the truth?"

In essence, they took the advice of the Qur'an: "Ask the men who know." They chose, as it happened, a non-Muslim who is a professor of embryology at the University of Toronto. His name is Keith Moore, and he is the author of textbooks on embryology - a world expert on the subject. They invited him to Riyadh and said, "This is what the Qur'an says about your subject. Is it true? What can you tell us?"

While he was in Riyadh, they gave him all of the help that he needed in translation and all of the cooperation for which he asked. And he was so surprised at what he found that he changed his textbooks. In fact, in the second edition of one of his books, called Before we are born... in the second edition about the history of embryology, he included some material that was not in the first edition because of what he found in the Qur'an. Truly this illustrates that the Qur'an was ahead of its time and that those who believe in the Qur'an know what other people do not know.

I had the pleasure of interviewing Dr. Keith Moore for a television presentation, and we talked a great deal about this - it was illustrated by slides and so on. He mentioned that some of the things that the Qur'an states about the growth of the human being were not known until thirty years ago. In fact, he said that one item in particular – the Qur'an's description of the human being as a "leech-like clot" ('alaqah) at one stage - was new to him; but when he checked on it, he found that it was true, and so he added it to his book. He said, "I never thought of that before," and he went to the zoology department and asked for a picture of a leech. When he found that it looked just like the human embryo, he decided to include both pictures in one of his textbooks.

Dr. Moore also wrote a book on clinical embryology, and when he presented this information in Toronto, it caused quite a stir throughout Canada. It was on the front pages of some of the newspapers across Canada, and some of the headlines were quite funny. For instance, one headline read: "Surprising Thing Found In Ancient Book!". It seems obvious from this example that people do not clearly understand what it is all about. As a matter of fact, one newspaper reporter asked Professor Moore, "Don't you think That maybe the Arabs might have known about these things – the description of the embryo, its appearance and how it changes and grows? Maybe there were not scientists, but maybe they did something crude dissections on their own - carved up people and examined these things."

The professor immediately pointed out to him that he [i.e., the reporter] had missed a very important point - all of the slides of the embryo that had been shown and had been projected in the film had come from pictures taken through a microscope. He said, "It does not matter if someone had tried to discover embryology fourteen centuries ago, they could not have seen it!". All of the descriptions in the Qur'an of the appearance of the embryo are of the item when it is still too small to see with the eye; therefore, one needs a microscope to see it.

Since such a device had only been around for little more than two hundred years, Dr. Moore taunted, "Maybe fourteen centuries ago someone secretly had a microscope and did this research, making no mistakes anywhere. Then he somehow taught Muhammad and convinced him to put this information in his book. Then he destroyed his equipment and kept it a secret forever. Do you believe that? You really should not unless you bring some proof because it is such a ridiculous theory." In fact, when he was asked "How do you explain this information in the Qur'an?" Dr. Moore's reply was, "It could only have been divinely revealed."!

Although the aforementioned example of man researching information contained in the Qur'an deals with a non-Muslim, it is still valid because he is one of those who is knowledgeable in the subject being researched. Had some layman claimed that what the Qur'an says about embryology is true, then one would not necessarily have to accept his word. However, because of the high position, respect, and esteem man gives scholars, one naturally assumes that if they research a subject and arrive at a conclusion based on that research, then the conclusion is valid. One of Professor Moore's colleagues, Marshall Johnson, deals extensively with geology at the University of Toronto.

He became very interested in the fact that the Qur'an's statements about embryology are accurate, and so he asked Muslims to collect everything contained in the Qur'an which deals with his specialty. Again people were very surprised at the findings. Since there are a vast number subjects discussed in the Qur'an, it would certainly require a large amount of time to exhaust each subject. It suffices for the purpose of this discussion to state that the Qur'an makes very clear and concise statements about various subjects while simultaneously advising the reader to verify the authenticity of these statements with research by scholars in those subjects. And as illustrated by the Qur'an has clearly emerged authentic.

 Excerpts from "The Amazing Qur'an" by Gary Miller 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 25 January 2010 at 1:29am
UK Science Museum exhibition of Muslim heritage

The Science Museum in London is hosting a new exhibition, '1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World'.

The show traces the history of a thousand years of science from the Muslim world, including social, scientific and technical achievements.

Nick Higham had a look around.

'Hidden history' of Muslim science explored

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8473477.stm - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8473477.stm

(Video - 3 minutes)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8473477.stm -


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http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 26 January 2010 at 2:26pm
Medical Pioneers of Muslim Civilization
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFD58Z1td0Y - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFD58Z1td0Y


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 03 February 2010 at 2:55pm
Contributions of Islam to History By Shaikh Hamza Yusuf 1/4
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIK7Ur3HD4I - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIK7Ur3HD4I


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 10 February 2010 at 5:32pm
 The European Perspective on Muslim Influences" by Abdal Hakim Murad
 
In his final address to the non-Muslim participants of the New Mexico educational retreat, Abdal Hakim Murad looks at the other aspects of the long-standing historical interaction of the three Abrahamic faiths, such as the transmission of science, technology, and philosophical ideas from the Islamic world to the Western world. Islam in the middle ages was a very successful commercial and material civilization and this fact combined with the Muslim's strategic geographic positions allowed for such a profound influence and contribution. The speaker looks at the economic/cultural/scientific contributions in the areas of maritime navigation and exploration, agriculture, music, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, and much more. (Recorded at the Dar al Islam Teachers' Institute seminar).
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOrWrLpBUrw&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOrWrLpBUrw&feature=related
 
(About 18 mins)
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 13 February 2010 at 8:43pm

Love of Books

Muslim men of letters preferred the study of books to gatherings and discussions, for being close to books was closer to their hearts than being close to the Caliph or the Ruler. When al-Jahiz wanted to visit Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik al-Ziyat, a literary figure and a minister, he thought the best gift to give him would be the book by Sibawayh, the master of Arabist of his time. The minister accepted the gift joyfully and said to al-Jahiz, "By Allah! Nobody ever gave me a gift more beloved than this gift of yours."

Sahib ibn Ubad, instead of accepting the highest post in the royal palace of Nuh ibn Mansur al-Samani, opted for the company of books in a library, since he was in love with his library, he could not leave it and could not take it with him. So he preferred to live where his heart was. This was the spirit of the learning on whose basis our learned men, the rich and the noble, showed such zealous attachment to books and collected them. They considered the loss of their domestic goods much less than the loss of books.

With this spirit of learning, people would compete with each other in purchasing books. As soon as a book neared completion, people approached the author or compiler to buy it. For example, the ruler of Andalusia, Hakam, learnt that Abu al-Faraj Asfahani was writing his famous literary book al-Aghani. He sent him a thousand dinars as the price of one copy of this book and asked him to send it as soon as it was completed. So this book found its way to Andalusia and was being read there long before being available in his own county - Iraq.

Source:"The Islamic Civilization" - Dr. Mustafa Sibai



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 23 February 2010 at 12:46am

1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets

A nice short video on Islamic inventions in the Middle Ages

http://www.waymo.de/play/FzLVx7n/ - http://www.waymo.de/play/FzLVx7n/

Oscar-winning actor and screen legend Sir Ben Kingsley has taken the starring role in a short feature film about the scientific heritage of Muslim civilisation. The mini-movie, entitled 1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets, accompanies a global touring exhibition that this currently open to the public at the Science Museum in London.

In the movie, Sir Ben takes on the role of a mysterious and cantankerous librarian who takes a group of school children on an enlightening journey to meet pioneering scientists and engineers from the history of Muslim civilization. The librarian is then revealed to be 12th century engineering genius Al-Jazari.

The exhibition runs till 25th April 2010 (with a short hiatus between 25th Feb and 12th March 2010 inclusive).

http://www.1001inventions.com/ - http://www.1001inventions.com/


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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 24 February 2010 at 12:23am

Prof. Jim Al-Khalili - A Talk on the History of Islamic Science

Prof. Jim Al-Khalil is professor of physics at Surrey University in the UK, who was born in Iraq. He rediscovered the lost history of Islamic sciences in the golden age of Islam, and gives this short summary

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2LYRdD_bSU&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2LYRdD_bSU&feature=related

(10 minutes)



-------------
Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 24 February 2010 at 2:17pm
Originally posted by Al-Cordoby

1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets

A nice short video on Islamic inventions in the Middle Ages

http://www.waymo.de/play/FzLVx7n/ - http://www.waymo.de/play/FzLVx7n/

Oscar-winning actor and screen legend Sir Ben Kingsley has taken the starring role in a short feature film about the scientific heritage of Muslim civilisation. The mini-movie, entitled 1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets, accompanies a global touring exhibition that this currently open to the public at the Science Museum in London.

In the movie, Sir Ben takes on the role of a mysterious and cantankerous librarian who takes a group of school children on an enlightening journey to meet pioneering scientists and engineers from the history of Muslim civilization. The librarian is then revealed to be 12th century engineering genius Al-Jazari.

The exhibition runs till 25th April 2010 (with a short hiatus between 25th Feb and 12th March 2010 inclusive).

http://www.1001inventions.com/ - http://www.1001inventions.com/
 
 
 
A very interesting and nicely presented movie... Good Job indeed...I wish it was longer
 
Sir Ben Kingsley as always did a wonderful job...
 
Thank you for sharing it
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 06 March 2010 at 12:34am

Muslim Economists before Adam Smith

There are many Muslim scholars who have written about economics in a systematic way from an Islamic point of view, and their writing goes back as far as the 8th century; that is more than 1000 years before Adam Smith.

There are numerous individuals who have been contributing to trying to revive an economic system in Islam which should be very relevant to the Muslim as an individual in his/her dealings; a call for a return to the foundation, to the heritage of the Islamic economics to establish a system on the basic guidance of Islam, and as such provide a possible alternative to the present system.

Among others, Ibn Khaldun wrote about the economic system in Islam in the 15th century. Ibn Khaldun, in particular, was described once by the famous British historian Arnold Toynbee as the greatest sociologist who ever lived.

Ibn Khaldun was both a sociologist and economist because he dealt in a systematic way with some aspects pertaining to economics. Throughout Islamic history, there have been numerous jurists and scholars who also wrote about certain aspects of Islamic economics, but these writings were scattered in a variety of books of jurisprudents

http://english.islammessage.com/articledetails.aspx?articleId=591 - http://english.islammessage.com/articledetails.aspx?articleId=591

/articledetails.aspx?articleId=919 - The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun


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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 06 March 2010 at 10:48pm

Cordoba was the capital of Muslim Spain. It soon became the center for all light and learning for the entire Europe. Scholars and students from various parts of the world and Europe came to Cordoba to study. The contrast in intellectual activity is demonstrated best by one example: ‘In the ninth century, the library of the monastery of St. Gall was the largest in Europe. It boasted 36 volumes. At the same time, that of Cordoba contained over 500,000!’.

The idea of the college was a concept which was borrowed from Muslims. The first colleges appeared in the Muslim world in the late 600's and early 700's. In Europe, some of the earliest colleges are those under the University of Paris and Oxford they were founded around the thirteenth century. These early European colleges were also funded by trusts similar to the Islamic ones and legal historians have traced them back to the Islamic system. The internal organization of these European colleges was strikingly similar to the Islamic ones, for example the idea of Graduate (Sahib) and undergraduate (mutafaqqih) is derived directly from Islamic terms.

In the field of Mathematics the number Zero (0) and the decimal system was introduced to Europe, which became the basis for the Scientific revolution. The Arabic numerals were also transferred to Europe, this made mathematical tasks much easier, problems that took days to solve could now be solved in minutes. The works of Al-Khwarizmi (Alghorismus) were translated into Latin. Alghorismus, from whom the mathematical term algorism was derived, wrote Sindhind, a compilation of astronomical tables. He, more importantly, laid the ground work for algebra and found methods to deal with complex mathematical problems, such as square roots and complex fractions. He conducted numerous experiments, measured the height of the earth's atmosphere and discovered the principle of the magnifying lens. Many of his books were translated into European languages. Trigonometric work by Alkirmani of Toledo was translated into Latin (from which we get the sine and cosine functions) along with the Greek knowledge of Geometry by Euclid. Along with mathematics, masses of other knowledge in the field of physical science was transferred.

How Islam Influenced Science
by Macksood Aftab -The Islamic Herald



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 09 March 2010 at 2:31pm
Time to acknowledge science's debt to Islam?

  • Book information
  • Science and Islam: A history by Ehsan Masood
  • Published by: Icon Books
  • Price: £14.99
  • Book information
  • The House of Wisdom: How the Arabs transformed Western civilization by Jonathan Lyons
  • Published by: Bloomsbury Press
  • Price: £20.00

WHEN Roman civilisation fell in the early centuries AD, the light of scholarship was extinguished. It was close to a thousand years before civilisation recovered, thanks to European scholars who rediscovered classical Greek learning and ushered in the new dawn of the Renaissance.

At least, this is how history is taught. Now two books argue that this view ignores the crucial role of Islamic scholars.

In the first part of Science and Islam, a fascinating and clearly written book, Ehsan Masood tells how Islam spread rapidly from the 7th century onward, from the west of China to the south of Spain. As Europe slumbered in the Dark Ages, science-friendly caliphs such as al-Mamun, who ruled Baghdad in the 9th century, sponsored the translation of scientific texts from lands they had conquered.

Among them were the works of scholars such as 8th-century mathematician Musa al-Khwarizmi, who popularised the Indian number system and invented algebra; ibn-Sina (also known as Avicenna), a Persian polymath who realised in the 11th century that diseases can spread through soil and water; and 13th-century astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, who made improvements to the Greek planetary models that Nicolaus Copernicus later relied on for his heliocentric theory.

While the Islamic world was enjoying astronomy, philosophy and medicine, those in Europe could not tell the hours of the day, thought the Earth was flat, and saw disease as punishment from God, says Jonathan Lyons in The House of Wisdom. That changed after the Crusades, set in motion by Pope Urban II at the end of the 11th century, which resulted in a spectacular growth in trade and communication between east and west. Knowledge that had taken centuries to build was unleashed on an unsuspecting Europe.

The House of Wisdom is a demanding read, with confusing jumps in time. But Lyons vividly conveys the excitement young European scholars travelling east must have felt as they glimpsed a dazzling new world of learning. The influences of Arab culture on the west are pervasive, in imports such as gardens, carpets and chess, and in our scientific vocabulary - from alkali and algebra to zero and zenith. More important than any individual piece of knowledge, though, was the Islamic world's fundamental realisation that science can grant humans power over nature.

Masood and Lyons agree that the Arabs' success was down to their receptivity to new ideas, much of which came directly from their religion. Though not all religious leaders were happy with the scientists' influence, the Prophet Muhammad had encouraged his followers to seek knowledge, "even if you must go all the way to China".

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126962.400-time-to-acknowledge-sciences-debt-to-islam.html




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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 15 March 2010 at 1:11am

The Origin of Bimaristans (Hospitals) in Islamic Medical History

With the dawn of Islam on the Bedouin, nomadic tribes of the Arabian Peninsula came an enlightenment, not only strictly spiritual in nature, but also with cultural, educational and scientific connotations.

Among the fruits of this enlightenment was the eventual establishment of huge health facilities that, among other things, played an important educational role amongst physicians of the age.

The first bimaristan, as these establishments were called, was built in Damascus in 86 Hijri (707 A.D.) by Caliph Al-Waleed ibn `Abdul-Malik http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience/HSELayout&cid=1158658281894#1 - (1) . The aim of its construction was the treatment of acute diseases and the care of patients affected with chronic diseases (such as lepers and the blind). Leprosy patients were not only treated free of charge but were given money to help in supporting their families.

The word bimaristan is of Persian origin and means hospital, with bimar meaning disease and stan meaning location or place; thus the location or place of disease http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience/HSELayout&cid=1158658281894#2 - (2) .

The Bimaristan System:

The physicians of the Islamic world set up a concise system for bimaristans with two important aims: the welfare of their patients who were treated according to the latest in medical know-how, and teaching medicine to newly graduated physicians ...

 Read more: http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience/HSELayout&cid=1158658281894#ixzz0iDOIs41W - http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience/HSELayout&cid=1158658281894#ixzz0iDOIs41W



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 19 March 2010 at 1:55am
Tracing the Impact of Latin Translations of Arabic Texts on European Society

Imagine a period in history, a time when Arab and Islamic cultures were at their zenith, renowned for their learning and scholarship. Aspiring scholars from the world over, flocked to these centres to get the best education money could buy. Some of these centres were privately run Madrasas, attached to mosques, with a wide ranging curriculum that focused on both religious and secular higher education. You did not have to be a Muslim to attend a course of learning at these Madrassas. By contrast enrolling at a university in medieval Europe was the first step to taking holy orders and to priesthood. Thus not only were European institutions of higher learning not open to Jews and Muslims but they were also closed to Christian scholars who wanted to fulfill their educational aspirations without having to take up holy orders. Hence Christian and Jewish scholars who were in a position to, also sought out these Madrassas and were not averse to the opportunity of being instructed by the leading scholars of the Muslim world of that time, not only in secular courses but also in Bible and Torah studies. In other words these Madrassas were all round institutions of adult learning that had an international reputation and appeal that crossed religious and political divides.

The 8th to the 13th centuries was such a period in Islamic history, when scholars from the Arab and the wider Islamic world explored the learning of earlier civilizations and built out of them a world civilization based on science which was previously unmatched. Arab and Arabic is key here. For just as today, English is the lingua franca of the modern age, the language in which flagship achievements, especially of science and technology are expressed. So Arabic was the international language of communication of the medieval age, certainly in regard to science and technology. Medieval European scholars who wanted to share in this learning needed to master Arabic as a first step.

Today the tables have turned and it is scholars from Islamic lands - those who can, who flock West to immerse themselves not only in the best modern education money can buy, but also to rediscover the golden age of Islamic learning. It is now the Western scholars who have taken on the role of preserving and unlocking the old Arabic texts that hold the details of what Muslims conveyed to the Europe of the middle ages. ...

http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=MH1002-4093 - http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=MH1002-4093


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 05 April 2010 at 6:55pm
Harun Yahya:The Qur'an Leads The Way To Science
 
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TpwPBd9dmpk - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TpwPBd9dmpk
 
 
(About 40 mins)


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 18 April 2010 at 2:50pm

Thought for the Day, 25 August 2005

Abdal Hakim Murad

A group of over 500 scientists has just issued a new declaration on animal testing in medical research. They are all for it, it seems. Nobel laureates, professors, Fellows of the Royal Society, these great luminaries of the nation's labs insist that animal testing is an essential ingredient in the research that may bring relief to millions of victims of some of the world's most miserable complaints.

This has always been one of the most tricky of ethical dilemmas. The right of innocent animals not to suffer torture seems non-negotiable, until you point out that the need to defeat disease is non-negotiable as well. The anti-vivisection camp has not found it easy to deal with the fact that vaccines, insulin, anticoagulants, and other drugs which have saved millions of lives were developed in part by inflicting pain on animals.

Our public debate has been further confused by the bad behaviour of animal rights extremists. Only on Tuesday a farm in Staffordshire which provides guinea pigs to medical research labs announced it was changing its line of business, following death threats, hate mail, and arson attacks. By muddying the moral waters, such terrorism has certainly done the cause of animals no favours at all.

Away from the emotions, the issue is one of rights. Is humanity so categorically superior to other orders of creation that we can abolish the rights of other species when they clash with our own? In some cases, this is unarguable. I will drive my car into a flock of sheep to avoid hitting a child. But at other times things are less clear. Medical research is a gamble: many possibilities must be explored before an effective treatment is found. How do I measure the chance of reducing human suffering against the certainty of inducing suffering in an animal?

Religion, happily or unhappily, offers no easy answer to this. The Prophet Muhammad said, 'God has created a cure for every illness', and Muslims are prominent in the health service in this country, and also in medical research. Yet he had much to say about the treatment of animals. 'May God curse those who mutilate animals', is one rather unambiguous saying. When returning from a journey, he would feed and unburden his camel before attending to his prayers.

So is there a particular Muslim view on this difficult question of animal testing? I suspect that in the light of the Prophet's teaching, there is an urgent need to find alternatives. Primate testing should certainly be banned. The claims made by the cosmetics industry should be met by the idea that probably, all things considered, there are enough cosmetics already.

But one religious teaching is unarguable, and it is unique to religion. It is meaningless to apologise to animals; but if we continue with experimenting on their bodies, for whatever reason, we must at least apologise to God.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/programmes/thought/documents/t20050825.shtml - http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/programmes/thought/documents/t20050825.shtml


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 27 April 2010 at 1:42am

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1206 - Ibn Khaldun and Adam Smith: Contributions to Theory of Division of Labor and Modern Economic Thought

The contributions of Ibn Khaldun to the development of economic thought have gone largely unnoticed in the academic realm of Western nations, this despite recent research focusing on Khaldun's magnum opus, The Muqaddimah.

In this paper, we examine the similarities between The Muqaddimah and Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, particularly as they discuss the benefits of a system of specialization and trade and the role of markets and price systems.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1206 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1206  



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 15 May 2010 at 8:59am

Muslim doctors and Islamic history of Europe

Muslim Doctors who gave the basis or fountain that medicine is standing on today:

A Spanish doctor in Cordoba explains some of the contributions of early Muslim doctors

http://islamonline.com/mm/video/video.php?op=showvideo&vidid=1484 - http://islamonline.com/mm/video/video.php?op=showvideo&vidid=1484



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 18 May 2010 at 4:59pm
A brother from Australia presents in this video some of the main inventions by Muslim scientists in a light way
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ZWH4Y8ZEpE - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ZWH4Y8ZEpE
 
The program is Salam Cafe
 


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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 19 May 2010 at 7:46am
 

IN RETROSPECT:

The Islamic Revolution

 
Revolution is defined as a sudden, radical or complete change; especially the overthrow or renunciation of one ruler or government and substitution of another by the governed. To change fundamentally or completely. To turn over in the mind: reflect upon: ponder.

In the Muslim world this revolution was brought about through the influence of religion. The western world began its revolution by separating the secular sciences from religion culminating in the landing of man on the moon. Modern science is a part of the Islamic revolution. Because of the polytheistic view natural sciences had become forbidden territory and natural phenomena were given sanctity. The Islamic revolution of monotheism opened the doors of research and investigation by displacing nature from its sacred pedestal. Modern science is wholly the gift of the Islamic revolution-directly in its initial stages, and indirectly in its later stages. Modern scientific revolution was set in motion by Islam, which was sent by the Almighty for the guidance of all mankind for all eternity. Henri Pirenne author of "History of Western Europe" says, "Islam changed the face of the globe. The traditional order of history was overthrown." Islam is complete truth. All-pervasiveness of superstition served as a hurdle to all kinds of human development. The kings or rulers exploited the masses through polytheism and superstition. The kings represented God on earth. Some kings like Nimrod, Pharaoh claimed as gods.

Dr. George Sarton, a former Professor of History of Science at Harvard University, stated in his book, "The Life of Science" that the foundations of science were laid for us by the Mesopotamian civilization (present day Iraq) whose scholars and scientists were their priests. The second development of science came through the Greeks. The Third Stage of development, however, is to be credited to the meteoric rise of Islam. For nearly four hundred years Islam led the scientific world as from one end of Islam to the other, from Spain to India, the great body of past knowledge was exchanged between her scholars and the torch carried forward with the new discoveries. Scholars of Christendom from about the eleventh century were mainly occupied for over two hundred years in translating from Arabic into Latin. Thus Islam paved the way for the Renaissance, which in turn led to science's fourth great development in the modern world.

It was God's decree that Prophet Muhammad (s) to be a da'i (missionary) as well as a mahi (eradicator).

The Qur'an says:

"We have revealed to you this book so that, by the will of their Lord, you may lead men from darkness to light.

(Quran, 14: 1)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D73EtVfY5m4 -


Posted By: searching
Date Posted: 22 May 2010 at 9:00pm
I'm the PBS documentary Inside Islam, they discussed how the Qur'an described fetal development. It was absolutely amazing to me how accurate it was. Modern science only relatively recently solved this mystery. And it's in the Qur'an which is an ancient text. I was very impressed.

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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 23 May 2010 at 12:12am
PBS have surely produced a number of good and interesting documentaries over the years
 
In the field of Social Sciences, Ibn Khaldun, the briliant Tunisian Muslim scholar of the 14th. century, is considered by many to be the founder of a number of modern disciplines, including Sociology. In Economics, he was 350 years ahead of Adam Smith:
 
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1208 - Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Empires

Caroline Stone

The 14th-century historiographer and historian Abu Zayd ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun was a brilliant scholar and thinker now viewed as a founder of modern historiography, sociology and economics.

Living in one of human kind's most turbulent centuries, he observed at first hand, or participated in, such decisive events as the birth of new states, the disintegration of the Muslim Andalus and the advance of the Christian reconquest, the Hundred Years' War, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the decline of Byzantium and the epidemic of the Black Death.

Considered by modern critics as the thinker that conceived and created a philosophy of history that was undoubtedly one of the greatests works ever created by a man of intelligence, so groundbreaking were his ideas, and so far ahead of his time, that his writings are taken as a lens through which to view not only his own time but the relations between Europe and the Muslim world in our own time as well.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1208 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1208



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 09 June 2010 at 5:19pm

Sultans of Science: Showcasing exhibits from Islam's Golden Age 

Sultans of Science is a traveling exhibition that is currently in Canada, which exemplifies Islam's great contribution to modern science. The exhibition, which opened on May 19 and continues until Sept. 7, currently takes place at the TELUS World of Science center in Edmonton.

This is the second time "Sultans of Science" is being showcased in Canada. Earlier, the exhibition was held at the Ontario Science Centre where it drew record crowds. The exhibition will be at the Edmonton venue for three months and will travel to another North American venue.

"The exhibition is focused on science and technology and is non-political and non-religious," says Ludo Verheyen, the CEO of MTE Studios. MTE Studios is a specialized consultancy firm based in Dubai that focuses on "themed architecture and interactive learning experiences." It recently signed a contract with TELUS World of Science to showcase the global traveling exhibition at Edmonton in Canada.

"We want to create an awareness of our indebtedness to a civilization, which was once the greatest in the world, and which is undoubtedly part of our heritage," says Verheyen. "History textbooks refer to events when Europe slumbered in a period which is commonly known as the Dark Ages, but few people are aware of the tremendous contributions Muslim scholars made in science and technology during the Golden Age of the Islamic World (700 to 1,700 C.E.) toward today's technology and society."

The civilization of Islam's Golden Age thrived on seeking knowledge that led to inventions, discoveries and prosperity. Its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would enable the development of computers. Its doctors examined the body, undertook operations with medical instruments, which are very similar to today's ones, and found new cures for diseases. Its astronomers observed the heavens, developed astronomical tools to calculate their position on earth and paved the way for satellites and travel in space. Its engineers, like Al Jazari -- who is regarded as the father of modern mechanical engineering -- developed ingenious devices such as the first robot.

"We trust, however, that the exhibition may trigger constructive debate on the importance of building bridges between civilizations, keeping knowledge alive and ensuring that it is passed on to others rather than be censored and threatened to be wiped out," says Verheyen.

Numerous historians and research houses conducted the study for the exhibition and an independent panel reviewed the content. "As with any exhibition of this kind, it takes time to collate all the relevant research information. What is apparent, however, is that many of the manuscripts were hidden away or destroyed," says Verheyen.

While we may all believe that Leonardo Da Vinci invented the flying machine, there was a person in the ninth century in Muslim Spain who not only made a glider, but also flew it successfully. The explorers section of the exhibition also tells the story of Ibn Battuta -- the Marco Polo of the Islamic world -- who traveled for 28 years from his hometown Tangiers in Morocco, to as far as China. His diary tells us about the daily life, trading and interesting stories from the beginning of the 15th century.

In the explorers cluster, the story of the great Muslim Chinese Admiral, Zeng He, with the massive fleet of treasure ships that he discovered the world with six centuries ago is told. The Chinese expected nothing from other nations other than respect, sharing of knowledge and the exchange of gifts. When the Chinese emperor died and a new dynasty came to the fore, China turned into an introverted society. China has now made the choice to share its talents and ideas with the world and obtain insights and knowledge from the world again.

The exhibit cluster on fine technology incorporates interactive exhibits on trick devices. Stories such as that of Aladdin and his magic lamp were brought to life when ninth-century inventors such as the Banu Musa brothers tricked each other with science demonstrations. What appeared to be impossible was easily explained by the ingenious science and technology behind the trick. This way of informal learning complies with the principles applied in today's science centers.

There are also little stories of the origins of products in our daily life such as soap, perfume and coffee, which were discovered by a Muslim herdsman who observed that his cattle became hyperactive after eating the beans of a certain plant. ...

Background on the Ontario Exhibition

http://www.ontariosciencecentre.ca/calendar/default.asp?showid=824 - http://www.ontariosciencecentre.ca/calendar/default.asp?showid=824


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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 13 June 2010 at 4:54pm
The Islamic history of Europe

Contributions of Muslims in the rise of western society and philosophy

http://islamonline.com/mm/video/video.php?op=showvideo&vidid=1486 - http://islamonline.com/mm/video/video.php?op=showvideo&vidid=1486



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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 16 June 2010 at 8:59am
Islamic Medical Manuscript

Islamic cultures are among the most interesting, complex, and dynamic in the world. At the same time, they are among the least known in the West. From its dramatic rise in the seventh century A. D. to the present, Islamic civilization has covered a large part of the globe, incorporating many subcultures and languages into its orbit, and vigorously engaging the peoples around it.

Medicine was a central part of medieval Islamic culture. Disease and health were of importance to rich and poor alike, as indeed they are in every civilization. Responding to circumstances of time and place, Islamic physicians and scholars developed a large and complex medical literature exploring and synthesizing the theory and practice of medicine. This extensive literature was not specialized in the sense that modern medical literature is. Rather, it was integrated with learned traditions in philosophy, natural science, mathematics, astrology, alchemy, and religion.

Islamic medicine was built on tradition, chiefly the theoretical and practical knowledge developed in Greece and Rome. For Islamic scholars, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/bioG.html#galen - ( http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/glossary.html#d - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/glossary.html#ca - 210 AD) and http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/bioH.html#hippocrates - (5th century BC) were pre-eminent authorities, followed by Hellenic scholars in Alexandria. Islamic scholars translated their voluminous writings from Greek into Arabic and then produced new medical knowledge based on those texts. In order to make the Greek tradition more accessible, understandable, and teachable, Islamic scholars ordered and made more systematic the vast and sometimes inconsistent Greco-Roman medical knowledge by writing encyclopedias and summaries.

Islamic medicine drew upon Hellenic medical tradition to form its own. Likewise, medieval and early modern scholars in Europe drew upon Islamic traditions and translations as the foundation for their medical enterprise. It was through Arabic translations that the West learned of Hellenic medicine, including the works of Galen and Hippocrates. Of equal if not of greater influence in Western Europe were systematic and comprehensive works such as http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/bioA.html#avicenna - Canon of Medicine, which were translated into Latin and then disseminated in manuscript and printed form throughout Europe. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries alone, the Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times.

As noted earlier, medieval Islamic medicine was not an appendage of Islamic culture but rather immersed in it. This means, among other things, that Islamic medicine participated fully in the Islamic traditions of book-making, including calligraphy, illustration, paper making, and binding.

Because copying the Qur'an was an act of piety, calligraphy for even non-religious subjects came to be more than the mere reproduction of texts--it was and is a form of applied and even fine art, engrossing readers and writers alike.

Islamic illustration practices tended to be adopted from the Byzantine and Persian cultures and to have an ambivalent and particularly complex history within Islamic culture.

Islam learned paper making from China but made the fateful decision to use linen as the raw material for paper, rather than mulberry bark, or other organic matter. The transfer of Chinese technology and the innovation in the use of linen provided a writing material more economical than parchment and more durable than papyrus. It was from Islam that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen.

Except for the paper manufacturing, binding is the Islamic book craft least studied historically. Until more research on it is done, we can say that Islamic craftsmen and artists developed characteristic book-binding forms, most of which were functional--providing protection to paper and ink--with some being decorative, at times of a very high order.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/med_islam.html - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/med_islam.html

 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 18 June 2010 at 12:41pm

The pleasure of learning is one of the essential pleasures of the human race ..

The rise of Muslims to the zenith of civilization in a period of four decades was based on lslam's emphasis on learning. This is obvious when one takes a look at the Qur'an and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad which are filled with references to learning, education, observation, and the use of reason. The very first verse of the Qur'an revealed to the Prophet of Islam on the night of 27th of Ramadan in 611 AD reads:

"Recite: In the name of thy Lord who created man from a clot. Recite: And thy Lord is the Most Generous Who taught by the pen, taught man that which he knew not." (Quran, 96:1-5)

"And they shall say had we but listened or used reason, we would not be among the inmates of the burning fire." (Quran, 67:10)

"Are those who have knowledge and those who have no knowledge alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful. " (Quran, 39:9)

The Qur'an encourages people towards scientific research:.

"And whoso brings the truth and believes therein such are the dutiful." (Quran, 39:33)

Every Muslim man's and every Muslim woman's prayer should be:

"My Lord! Enrich me with knowledge.." (Quran, 20:114)

The pursuit of knowledge and the use of reason, based on sense and observation is made obligatory on all believers.

The following traditions of the Prophet supplement the foregoing teachings of the Qur'an in the following way:

  • Seek knowledge "even though it be in China." 

  • "The acquisition of knowledge is compulsory for every Muslim, whether male or female." 

  • "The ink of the scholar is more sacred than the blood of the martyr." 

  • "Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave." 

  • "God has revealed to me, 'Whoever walks in the pursuit of knowledge I facilitate for him the way to heaven.' 

  • "The best form of worship is the pursuit of knowledge." 

  • "Scholars should endeavor to spread knowledge and provide education to people who have been deprived of it. For, where knowledge is hidden it disappears." 

  • Some one asked the Prophet : "Who is the biggest scholar?" He replied: "He who is constantly trying to learn from others, for a scholar is ever hungry for more knowledge." 

  • "Seek knowledge and wisdom, or whatever the vessel from which it flows, you will never be the loser." 

  • "Contemplating deeply for one hour (with sincerity) is better than 70 years of (mechanical) worship." 

  • "To listen to the words of the learned and to instill unto others the lessons of science is better than religious exercises." 

  • "Acquire knowledge: it enables its possessor to distinguish right from the wrong, it lights the way to heaven; it is our friend in the desert, our society in solitude, our companion when friendless - it guides us to happiness; it sustains us in misery; it is an ornament among friends and an armor against enemies." 

The Islamic Empire for more than 1,000 years remained the most advanced civilization in the world. The main reasons for this was that Islam stressed the importance and respect of learning, forbade destruction, cultivated a respect for authority, discipline, and tolerance for other religions. The teachings of Qur'an and Sunnah inspired many Muslims to their accomplishments in science and medicine.

By the tenth century their zeal and enthusiasms for learning resulted in all essential Greek medical and scientific writings being translated into Arabic in Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad. Arabic became the international language of learning and diplomacy. The center of scientific knowledge and activity shifted eastward, and Baghdad emerged as the capitol of the scientific world. The Muslims became scientific innovators with originality and productivity ...

http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0601-2883 - http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0601-2883



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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 24 June 2010 at 1:32pm
Muslims And Medical History
 
 
http://www.islamicmedicine.org/history.htm -


Posted By: Resigned
Date Posted: 24 June 2010 at 10:25pm
Originally posted by Al-Cordoby

I just watched Al-Biruni's calculations at the start of episode 3 to calculate the circumference of the earth with a degree of accuracy of 99% (his estimation was only off by 1%) 1,000 years ago:
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=091mlMeOHqo&feature=related - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=091mlMeOHqo&feature=related
 
 

I think you will find that Al’s calculation is really nothing more than his copying of an experiment performed long before Al or islam existed.

If you take the time to research islamist “science”, you will find that most of it was stolen from earlier Greek philosophers and mathematicians.  The Greek philosopher Pythagoras was among the first to propose a spheroid Earth in the 6th century BC, using among his proofs how the sail of a ship could be observed to disappear over the curvature of the Earth.

Eratosthenese of Cyrene not only knew that the Earth was spherical, but managed to measure its circumference with astounding accuracy in the 3rd century BC.

 



Posted By: talkislam
Date Posted: 25 June 2010 at 3:47pm
Islamic civilization did a commendable job of collecting
and compiling knowledge from around the world, but it
produced very little that is original. Quran is
probably the only piece of literature that is uniquely
Islamic. Even there large parts of Quran are basically
compilation of earlier jewish customs and traditions.


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 26 June 2010 at 12:29am
Listen to this talk:

Contributions of Islam to History By Shaikh Hamza Yusuf 1/4
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIK7Ur3HD4I -


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 03 July 2010 at 7:16am

Islamic Perspectives on Sustainable Development

Mohammed I. Ansari

Economic progress in the twentieth century has been spectacular by common Statistical standards. Along with this enviable record have come two important realizations: the immense material wealth has not made people happier than they were before, and it has resulted in a gradual depletion and, in some cases, an outright destruction of scarce ecological and other resources. This has forced many social scientists to rethink the necessity - even the desirability - of indiscriminate economic progress. No other single topic of discussion seems to manifest these concerns more than that of sustainable development.

This paper looks at sustainable development from an Islamic perspective. Its theoretical arguments proceed as follows: Islam means peace and harmony and, therefore, the Islamic way of life entails living in peace and harmony. An active promotion of the harmonization of individual, social, and ecological interests would ensure sustainable development. The discussion is then framed in the context of the ordained role of human beings as God's trustees. Under this arrangement, God is the real owner of all resources, and humanity is allowed to use them to its advantage as long as this trust is not violated. The paper concludes that in a truly Islamic society, sustainable development is a logical outcome of a normal life and that there is thus no need for a separate strategy of sustainable development. The rest of the paper deals with the concept of sustainable development and highlights its multifaceted nature, explains the endogeneity of sustainable development in Islam, examines the Islamic characterization of the role of human beings and shows how such a role conform to the requirements of sustainable development, and ends with some concluding remarks.

Development is above all a question of values. It involves human attitudes and preferences, self-defined goals, and criteria for determining what ate tolerable costs to be borne in the course of change. These are far more important than better resource allocation, upgraded skills, or the rationalization of administrative procedures.

Second, it is being recognized that development is a multifaceted concept. Goulet (ibid.) expresses it the best when he says:

  • This total concept of development can perhaps best be expressed as the "human ascent" - the ascent of all men in their integral humanity, including the economic, biological, psychological, social, cultural, ideological, spiritual, mystical, and transcendental dimensions.
Finally, our actions both as consumers and producers have ecological implications. The overarching emphasis on attaining efficiency in resource allocation within the positivist framework has led to unprecedented levels of pollution and ecological disaster. Such externalities are usually treated as peripheral in mainstream economics. And yet our well-being, even our existence, is inextricably embedded in the quality of the ecological conditions within which we live. The second law of thermodynamics, commonly known as the law of entropy, presents a compelling argument for the need to include ecological considerations in any meaningful development (Georgescu-Roegen 1975, 1977).
 
  • /attachments/406_V11N3 Fall 94 - Ansari - Islamic Perspectives on Sustainable Development.pdf - click for a full paper in pdf

http://i-epistemology.net/science-a-technology/509-islamic-perspectives-on-sustainable-development.html - http://i-epistemology.net/science-a-technology/509-islamic-perspectives-on-sustainable-development.html



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 07 July 2010 at 12:43am

The Muslim Influence on Europe and the West

Part of a talk by Sheikh Abdal Hakim Murad

In his final address to the non-Muslim participants of the New Mexico educational retreat, Abdal Hakim looks at the other aspects of the long-standing historical interaction of the three Abrahamic faiths, such as the transmission of science, technology, and philosophical ideas from the Islamic world to the Western world.

Islam in the middle ages was a very successful commercial and material civilization and this fact combined with the Muslim's strategic geographic positions allowed for such a profound influence and contribution. The speaker looks at the economic/cultural/scientific contributions in the areas of maritine navigation and exploration, agriculture, music, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, and much more.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nbZyIFq8E1s - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nbZyIFq8E1s



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 21 July 2010 at 4:49pm
Islamic Civilization

A BBC documentary on scientific discoveries of Muslim scientists 1,000 years ago, starting with astronomy and the precise calculation of the earth's tilt angle by one of the early Muslim astronomers:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqZiWqblKY0 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqZiWqblKY0

(Part 1 - 8 minutes)





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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 30 July 2010 at 10:32am
Islamic Science: The Making of a Formal Intellectual Discipline       
 
The term "Islamic science" can be defined as the scientific way of defining and corroborating the uniquely monotheistic concept of tawhid (unity), a concept that can serve as an epistemological manifold for intellectual inquiry and development. In this context, science is taken as a systematic way of looking at things or, in other words, as both a philosophy of knowledge as well as an empirical methodology. When taken in its entirety, science includes the whole spectrum of human inquiry ranging from ontology to epistemology, from causality to cosmology, and from the natural  and social sciences to technology.
 
 
Science proceeds only through ontological insights and epistemological rigor. This is exemplified by Einstein's reconstruction of Newtonian physics by freeing it from the inertial frame of reference based on Euclidean geometry, and the notions of absolute space and absolute time (Einstein 1955). Since science is the only mode in which the human mind functions meaningfully vis-a-vis the understanding of reality, any religion not characterized by a theology that is amenable to scientific study cannot be taken seriously. Islam meets this requirement, as the Qur'an continually exhorts Muslims to think, ponder, and avoid speculation.
 
It is important to note that the stand of the modern scientists is itself opposed to the scientific methodology. Science admits and thrives on purely abstract notions (i.e., entropy and infinity), in the absence of which the entire edifice of science would collapse instantly. Although most of these intangible and highly abstract notions cannot be subjected to any empirical proof, except indirectly or only theoretically as some mathematical function, no scientist would dare disown "belief" in them. In fact, science proceeds only through theoretical constructs of both tangible and intangible phenomena. Perhaps the best argument why a scientist cannot reject the concept of a supernatural, unseen Creator is provided by the observations of the famous scientist Wilhelm Roentgen.
 
One day, Roentgen was conducting experiments on the behavior of an electric current passing through a vacuum tube. At the end of this experiment, he discovered that a set of unused photographic films that had been enclosed in a black envelope and placed in the drawer of a wooden table located in a corner of his laboratory, were all exposed. Let us analyze his reaction to this incident.
 
Being a scientist, Roentgen did not dismiss the incident as a matter of chance or negligence on his part. On the contrary, he became curious and repeated the entire experiment under identical conditions. To his great surprise, these photographic films were also exposed. His scientific spirit did not regard the recurrence of the rather "supernatural" incident as something mystical and therefore not subject to examination by science just because there was no "tangible" means to explain the situation. On the contrary, he hypothesized that some kind of rays were emerging from his experiment which, although intangible and imperceptible to human senses, could penetrate his desk and the envelope and thereby affect the concealed photographic films. Since nothing more could be known about those unseen rays, Roentgen called them "X-Rays," meaning some unknown rays.
 
It is important to note here that the ontological insight demonstrated by Roentgen in accepting the existence of an unseen phenomenon, as well as his equally sharp epistemological rigor in formulating the hypothesis of X-Rays, constitutes pure science according to the principles and norms  of modern science. If he had heedlessly suppressed his scientific curiosity, along with his ontological urge and epistemological acumen, dismissing the incident as something beyond empirical corroboration, humanity and science would have missed a highly significant discovery.
 
In the above example, Roentgen was engaged in experimental or applied science. His use of logical and inductive rigor to devise a hypothesis concerning the observed phenomenon and constructing a concept constituted science in the real sense. It is this epistemological acumen to hypothesize, as well as the role of cognitive capability to form a concept, that have been studied in our recent research into neuropsychology, or what we call "cognitive kinematics" (Husain 1989).
 
Sirajul Husain
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 01 August 2010 at 12:00am
Muslimahs leading the Science Revolution

Despite the recent barrage of news on the ridiculous niqab/hijab/burqa bans restricting women’s entry into education, it turns out that Muslim women are some of the best educated women in the world. Even in the most unlikely place of Saudi Arabia, Muslim women are graduating and becoming some of the most accomplished and successful scientists in the world.

According to the http://www.uis.unesco.org/template/pdf/ged/2009/GED_2009_EN.pdf - latest report by UNESCO , women in Saudi Arabia now outnumber western women in worldwide university enrollment and graduation rates. Furthermore, 13 Muslim countries produce a higher percentage of women science graduates than the US and upto 40% of Saudi doctors are women.  And it’s not only students and doctors that are pushing the boundaries, notables promoting science to women include Sheikha Mozah of Qatar and Princess Sumaya of Jordan. The science revolution of the Islamic world is here, and clearly it’s being led by women...


http://www.elanthemag.com/index.php/site/featured_articles_detail/muslimahs_leading_the_science_revolution-nid913348720/ - http://www.elanthemag.com/index.php/site/featured_articles_detail/muslimahs_leading_the_science_revolution-nid913348720/



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Posted By: searching
Date Posted: 01 August 2010 at 12:27am
I'm very happy to hear this.  I am always concerned about women's rights and education in any country.  I was amazed that this is the case in Saudi Arabia, though.  I just wish that women would have even more rights there in regards to their personal freedom.  But I guess change happens slowly.

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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 12 August 2010 at 3:01pm
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1262 - Manuscripts and printing in the spread of Muslim science

Dr Geoffrey Roper

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010].

The following article presents a brief status about the transmission of Muslim scientific texts, and how the physical means by which it was done may have affected their reception and influence in both the Muslim world and Europe. The article documents in particular the traces of existence of printing in early Islam, several centuries before the invention of printing by Gutenberg in the 15th century

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1262 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1262




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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 14 August 2010 at 12:17am
The Transfer of Science Between India, Europe and China via Muslim Heritage

Professor Charles Burnett

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010].

The Islamic realms served as a crucible for scientific learning from the ancient Greek world in the West and from China, India and Iran, in the East.

Western Europe in turn benefited from the transmission of Arabic science into Latin, just as Chinese culture was indebted to Arabic texts travelling eastwards.

There was a vast network of transmission over centuries and over continents. This short article presents three stories telling related to the transfer of science between India, Europe and China via Muslim Heritage.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1261 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1261



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 16 August 2010 at 1:37am
The Next Golden Age? Using History to Inspire Science Today

Dr. Natalie Day

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010].

This presentation will reflect on the modern state of science in the Islamic-world and the potential of a new 'golden age' of Islamic world science. It will highlight a number of eye-catching developments and trends that reinforce the potential for a wider shift in the science and innovation capabilities of the Islamic world, whilst also considering some of the challenges and barriers to success. How might more effective inspiration be drawn from the rich history of scientific endeavour?


http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1273 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1273



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 18 August 2010 at 2:47pm

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1259 - Medicine in the Middle Ages: New Insights and a Call for Further Research

Professor Rabie E Abdel-Halim

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010].

Aiming at restoring historical continuity to the currently available knowledge on medicine in the Middle Ages, the article summarizes some results from Prof. Abdel-Halim's extensive primary-source studies of the original Arabic works of ten medieval Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9th and 13th centuries and whose works represented original contributions to the progress of anatomy, physiology, clinical medicine and surgery.

The article also highlights the importance of continuing research in this field, for the reason that the investigation about the transmission and translation movements that occurred during the Middle Ages are bound to emphasize the universality of knowledge and unity of mankind. Such an assumption will certainly boost cultural inter-appreciation around the world and help to strengthen mutual understandings between the West and the East and, thus, nurture the interaction between different faiths and various civilisations.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1259 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1259  


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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 22 August 2010 at 1:58am

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1263 - The Stellar and Lunar Keys to Medieval Muslim Agriculture

Dr Zohor Idrisi

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010].

In this short note, Dr Zohor Idrisi, an expert on the history of Islamic agriculture, explores the interaction between some folk astronomical knowledge and the agricultural practice in Islamic civilisation. Taking examples from the al-anwa' literature, she focuses on the famous Calendar of Cordoba written in 961 CE under the title Kitab al Anwa' and translated into Latin as Liber anoe

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1263 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1263

 



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 26 August 2010 at 12:26am

Ibn Khaldun: The Rise & Fall of Empires

The Founder of Sociology, Ibn Khaldun, more than six centuries ago wrote many books on economics, sociology & history, including his theory on the rise and fall of empires
 
This article gives a glimpse on Ibn Khaldun's life and writings:
 
http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200605/ibn.khaldun.and.the.rise.and.fall.of.empires.htm - http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200605/ibn.khaldun.and.the.rise.and.fall.of.empires.htm
 


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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 27 August 2010 at 5:46pm

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1206 - Ibn Khaldun and Adam Smith: Contributions to Theory of Division of Labor and Modern Economic Thought

James R. Bartkus and M. Kabir Hassan

The contributions of Ibn Khaldun to the development of economic thought have gone largely unnoticed in the academic realm of Western nations, this despite recent research focusing on Khaldun's magnum opus, The Muqaddimah.

In this paper, we examine the similarities between The Muqaddimah and Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, particularly as they discuss the benefits of a system of specialization and trade and the role of markets and price systems.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1206 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1206



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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 28 August 2010 at 6:13pm
Traditional Muslim Classifications of the Sciences: Comparative Notes on Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi and Ibn Khaldun 
 
Osman Bakar
  
 
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) was born two decades after the death of Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311). This means that we may treat them as contemporaries. Those who know the life history of these two notable and fascinating Muslim intellectuals  could find it quite interesting making comparisons and contrasts between them. Ibn Khaldun, an Arab by birth, was a philosopher-historian; Qutb al-Din, who hailed from Shiraz, a city of historic importance in the Persian-speaking world, was a philosopher-scientist. Both traveled extensively in the Muslim world, both as a scholar and as a diplomat, for the two had been patronized by the rulers of their day. 
  
In the modern world, both have become famous, mainly because of their original scientific contributions to their respective fields of specialization. Let us first consider the fame of Qutb al-Din. He is well-known today, particularly for his contributions to astronomy and optics. His innovative treatment of planetary motion at the prestigious Maraghah School of Astronomy – the “NASA at Cape Kennedy of his day” – resulted   in the world’s first successful attempt at the construction of a model of planetary motion for Mercury. Some modern historians of science even claim that Qutb al-Din’s astronomical works influenced the later development of astronomy in the West, especially on Copernicus. In optics, Qutb al-Din is remembered for his achievement as the first scientist to have given a qualitatively correct explanation of the cause of the rainbow. He has many other contributions to Islamic thought and civilization, but the scope of this essay does not allow me to discuss them
 
 Now, unlike Qutb al-Din, who earned a respectable place in world intellectual history through his study of the natural world, the world fame of Ibn Khaldun arose from his study of the human world. He excited the world’s intelligentsia with his novel approaches to the study of human society and human history.  He discovered and explained, in a scientific manner, God’s laws governing the flow of human history and the growth and decay of human societies and civilizations. Creatively utilizing the ideas and insights of his Muslim predecessors into the nature and dynamics of human society, Ibn Khaldun founded a new science of society, a new philosophy of history, and a new science of civilization. If, on reading the Muqaddimah he wrote more than six centuries ago, we feel like we are reading a book on the destiny of human societies written only yesterday, it is precisely because the issues he discussed and the principles he offered to explain them are of central concern to all human societies, irrespective of time and place. These perennial issues of society and civilization and perennial principles governing societal phenomena, such as the idea of ‘asabiyyah (“group solidarity”), would guarantee well the “perennial significance” of Ibn Khaldun.
 
Qutb al-Din and Ibn Khaldun have one more thing in common, which is what this paper basically intends to discuss. This is their common concern with the issue of classification of the sciences (taqsim al-‘ulum). Both thinkers have authored works that contain extensive treatment of classification of the sciences developed by Muslims up to their respective times.
 
http://i-epistemology.net/science-a-technology/840-traditional-muslim-classifications-of-the-sciences-comparative-notes-on-qutb-al-din-al-shirazi-and-ibn-khaldun-.html - http://i-epistemology.net/science-a-technology/840-traditional-muslim-classifications-of-the-sciences-comparative-notes-on-qutb-al-din-al-shirazi-and-ibn-khaldun-.html
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 01 September 2010 at 5:19pm

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=277">   http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=277 -

Introduction to Islamic Architecture   

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture and beyond.

The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace, the Fort, the School, and urban buildings. For all these types of constructions, Islamic architecture developed a rich vocabulary that was also used for buildings of lesser importance such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture. The following article, recalling salient aspects of the rich tradition of Islamic architecture, provides a brief discussion on the concept of Islamic architecture and reviews a number of its key theoretical issues circulating in the Western academic circles

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=277 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=277



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 03 September 2010 at 2:16pm
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1278 - The Origins of Islamic Science

In the following well documented article Dr Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg surveys the origins of Islamic science, with a special focus on its interaction with the previous intellectual traditions of the ancient world as well as a survey of the beginnings of scientific activity in Arabic.

In this first part, he depicts in details the impact of Islamic principle in shaping the contours of the early scientific activity in the Muslim civilisation. Afterwards, in the second part, the author surveys some key contributions of the scientists of Islam in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and medicine...

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1278 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1278



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 08 September 2010 at 1:13am
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=252 - Islam as the Impetus of Scientific Advance

Islam provided (a strong incentive for progress) in the era 800-1200 ...

Throught the Muslim land, the search for knowledge and science was undertaken in an effort to improve society as a form of worship ...

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=252 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=252



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 10 September 2010 at 8:31am
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1276 - Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine

Professor Nil Sari

Attitudes and expectations towards medical knowledge and medical practice standards influence and determine the position of health practitioners and the development of medicine.

While describing the basic characteristics of the Ottoman Turkish medicine and medical practice through their scientific approach and standards, the following article by Professor Nil Sari aims at putting forth the priorities of the Ottoman Turkish medicine, by means of primary sources such as archive documents and medical manuscripts.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1276 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1276



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 15 September 2010 at 2:04pm

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=402 - The Muslim Carpet and the Origin of Carpeting

The Muslim carpet has long been a luxury commodity sought by textile museums, rich collectors and wealthy merchants all over the world. The fame of the flying carpet of 'Al'a Al-Din (Aladdin) added some emotional mystery and value to its already exceptional beauty and tangible quality. It is not surprising that carpets still represent one of the most valuable art items obtained by museums and wealthy families. Furthermore, carpeting is becoming one of the essential ingredients of today's living standard in the modern world. Modern sophisticated manufacturing has made it one of the cheapest available flooring methods, whilst its comfort and warmth has increased its popularity becoming the largest used flooring system replacing the ceramics and mosaics.

What are the origins of this tradition? What is the Muslim contribution to the history of the carpet industry? In the following article, a brief account provides a historical background to the appearance and development of Muslim carpet making; then light is shed on its transfer to the West so gradually setting up a western carpeting tradition.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=402 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=402



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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 16 September 2010 at 5:21pm

Impact of Islamic Civilization on The Modern World

http://www.scribd.com/doc/16406163/Impact-of-Islamic-Civilization-on-The-Modern-World - http://www.scribd.com/doc/16406163/Impact-of-Islamic-Civilization-on-The-Modern-World -


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 21 September 2010 at 6:30pm

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=653 - Beauty and Aesthetics in Islam

The Islamic civilisation allowed the development of autonomous norms of beauty that were inspired by the faith of Islam. The Islamic artistic tradition viewed the beauty of the universe, emphasized in the Quran, and the literary qualities of the Quranic text itself, as compelling evidence for the divine hand.

In this fascinating article, HRH Princess Wijdan Ali investigates the unique philosophy that underpins and guides Islamic art and the Muslim artist-artisan and developed the elements of a real and original philosophy of art, beauty and aesthetics in the Islamic culture.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=653 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=653



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 04 October 2010 at 3:24pm
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1283 - Uncovering A Thousand Years of Science and Technology

WIPO: The World Intellectual Property Organization

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) published in September 2010 on its website an interesting article (read online http://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2010/05/article_0008.html - here ) about the international touring exhibition "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in our World" which opened in August in Istanbul.

The exhibition is described as "a colorful, fascinating and insightful exhibition… This unique overview of the dynamism of Muslim civilization, its ingenuity and diverse scientific and technological achievements, is set to visit 30 major cities across five continents in the next four years".

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1283 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1283

 



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 08 October 2010 at 2:06am

Muslim Heritage in Our Hospitals - Bettany Hughes

Historian Bettany Hughes introduces us to the underappreciated wealth of Muslim Heritage that exists all around us in our everyday lives.

She tells us how hospitals, pharmacies, sophisticated surgery, dentistry, the understanding of blood circulation, vaccination and many other medical developments came to us from Muslim civilisation.

Discoveries made from the 7th to 17th centuries by multi-faith scientists in Muslim civilisation have had a huge but hidden influence on the modern world.

Knowledge from Assyrian, Babylonian, Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Persian and Roman civilisations was highly prized in the Muslim world.

Men and women scholars advanced science by building upon the ancients and making breakthroughs that paved the way for the European Renaissance.

This Golden Age of Discovery in the Muslim World (southern Europe, Africa, Middle East, Asia and to China) took place during the so-called Dark Ages of Europe.

Muslim civilisation promoted free-thinking, rationalism and tolerance. Many scholars expressed their faith by seeking to serve society and improve quality of life for others

http://www.youtube.com/user/DiscoverIslamTV#p/f/5/mkXm8NVizpI - http://www.youtube.com/user/DiscoverIslamTV#p/f/5/mkXm8NVizpI



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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 12 October 2010 at 10:55am
Sacred Arts and Mathematics
 
Very rarely found in the sacred arts of most traditions is the role of mathematical principles and geometric forms, except for that which is found in Islamic Art. It is widely assumed that Islamic Art is mainly composed of geometric patterns and shapes as a result of the belief and practice of aniconism, but this is not solely the case
 

Islamic patterns are indeed reflections of the subliminal mind and world of the sacred. Such archetypal forms employ an intricate geometrical system that refers back to the Oneness (tawhid) of God. Often seen by Westerners as abstract art, lacking the concreteness of that which is found in Christendom and Hindu India, Islamic Art’s reflection of spiritual realities on the material plane is a means by which one can comprehend the only reality that is in fact concrete.Seyyed Hossein Nasr, when referring to Westerners’ forgetfulness of the Pythagorean doctrine of mathematics and the writings of certain early Christian theologians, states in his book Islamic Science: An Illustrated Study:

 

If one studies these traditional sources, which express the same truths concerning the world of mathematics as those that determined the Islamic vision of things, it becomes evident that number and figure exist on three levels of reality: in the Divine Intellect as archetypes in the principal domain; in the intermediate world of the mind, which Nichomachus refers to as ‘scientific’; and in the external world, corresponding to ‘concrete’, quantitative numbers and figures. The modern world knows only the second and third levels, whereas Islam has remained always aware of all three.

 

It is apparent through the sacred forms in Islamic Art that Muslims, in fully understanding the hierarchical structure of the universe and the symbols within it, had unraveled the principles of physics and matter early on. Concrete objects on the physical plane were archetypes of the Ultimate Reality. God’s Oneness was the sum of all the multiplicities found on this temporal plane. This explains early Muslims affinity with numbers and love for arithmetic, which Westerners have evidence of in their use of Arabic numerals, introduced by Muslim Arabs along with the word “cipher” or sifr, which was actually a concept adopted from ancient India that meant “void” or “non-being.”

 

The Qur’an itself, though being the word of God, is also an archetype. It is an archetype of the cosmos, a sacred tablet that we are here to discover. The Qur’an is made up of surahs (chapters) and ayahs (verses). Interestingly, the word ayah in Arabic also means “sign” or “symbol.” This linguistic fact can lead to the interpretation of the holy word of God on an even broader scale. The first word of the Qur’an revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) through the angel Gabriel was iqra’.  This word is often wrongly translated and interpreted as “read.” One may ask how in fact such a command could be given to a man who was illiterate. The miracle of Prophet Muhammad was not anything else but his receiving the revelation of the Holy Qur’an. He was a indeed an extraordinary man, but at the same time an ordinary one with no magical powers. Hence, he was not miraculously taught to read. Iqra’ is sometimes also translated as “recite,” which I find more suiting, being that the culture of the people to whom the Qur’an was first revealed was that of an oral tradition. This period was the pinnacle of Arabic language, where reciting poetry and discussing philosophy was the Arabs’ source of nightly entertainment. Therefore, Gabriel’s commanding the recitation of the holy Word was in indeed what occurred, yet keeping in mind the richness of the Arabic language, where one word could have at least eleven different meanings, iqra’ could also be interpreted as “comprehend,” or “see.” In other words, recognize and understand the mysteries of the universe and the signs within it, for the universe is the macrocosm and the Holy Qur’an is the microcosm, of which we can also refer to when God taught His vicegerent Adam all the names (2:31); in other words, He taught Adam the mysteries of the universe.

 

In conclusion, Islamic thought is deep and complex. It has an archetypal tendency and a love for numerical symbols that cannot easily be deciphered amongst the many distractions of the modern world. It is highly recommended that both Westerners and Muslims carry out an extensive study of the history and philosophy of not only the plastic arts that were discussed here, but also in the art of poetry in Islam, which also strictly adhered to the complex principles of numerical symbolism and mathematics, and was never in a separate branch from mathematics itself. This is a perfect example reflecting the coherence of Islamic education, where subjects were not divorced from one another, but interconnected, a characteristic that is sadly unavailable in any university in the world today.

  http://www.lastprophet.info/sacred-arts-and-mathematics_2013.html - http://www.lastprophet.info/sacred-arts-and-mathematics_2013.html

 

Inspired by Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s Islamic Science: An Illustrated Study

patterns by Keith Critchlow



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 25 October 2010 at 8:28am
Religious Belief and Scientific Belief   
 
"Are those who know and those who do not know equal!?"
 
(Qur'an 39:9)
 
What we tend nowadays to call "science" in the narrow or strict sense covers the latest developments and discoveries in the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences. Yet the expression continues to be used in a wider sense, one that covers our contemporary social sciences and occasionally human sciences (including perhaps the science of religion) as well. If, when speaking of the Islamic perspective on, or conception of, religious belief, scientific belief, and the relation between them, we mean to address the entire Islamic tradition, we will invariably be faced with an impossible task. To do this successfully, we would have to start from the Qur'an and go through Islamic history century by century, if not generation by generation, and see how the Qur'anic perspective was realized by the Muslim community in diverse regions and disciplines. This process would reveal what tensions and conflicts arose, how these were resolved, and what happened when the Muslim world was faced with the adoption of what we now call "science."

Putting this task aside, we can perhaps touch on a few points in that long and complex history. First of all, we will speak briefly of the Qur'anic perspective and then say a few words about how the different sciences, when developed, were organized into a general scheme of human knowledge and how this organization implies a certain view of the relation between religious belief and scientific belief. This talk will conclude with the raising of some questions regarding what we understand by the term "Islamic science" when we use it as a historical or classificatory notion.
 
The Qur'anic Perspective
 
The Arabic expressions in the Qur'an that are used to signify mental discipline and usually translated into English as "science" are primarily two: 'ilm, normally rendered as "science" or "knowledge" (a faculty of sciences is regularly called kulliyat al 'ulum in Arabic, 'ulum being the plural of 'ilm) and hikmah, normally tendered as "wisdom." To begin with science or knowledge,’ one cannot but be struck by the frequency with which words derived from the root ‘-l-m, from which ‘ilm is derived, in the Qur’an. They appear with such persistence that one is forced to teach the conclusion that this is one of the key notions in the Qur’an and therefore of Islam itself. A Muslim hearing or reading the Qur’an can have little doubt that its constant repetition is meant to impress on him/her that this is a matter of great import for one’s salvation. There can remain no doubt in the mind of a non-Muslim reading the Qur’an and observing the emphasis placed on this expression that science or knowledge is meant to occupy a central place in Islam.
 
The presence and importance in a revealed book, which itself holds a central position in the religion, of an expression that is normally perceived as related to secular matters appears as something unnatural to a student of the history of religion.
 
The correspondence between some of the senses of ‘ilm and the Greek term gnosis tempts one to think of possible influences that may explain this Qur’anic phenomenon. Such a hypothesis appears useful because of the extremely limited role played by science or knowledge in pagan pre-Islamic Arabia, where one would normally look for the source or inspiration of this unusual Qur’anic emphasis. But since our knowledge of preIslamic Arabia, including its relations with neighboring regions, in such matters is far from perfect, such a hypothesis is no more than a wild guess. For, perhaps precisely the absence of any interest in and concern for science or knowledge (or the prevalence of ignorance, in that “age of ignorance” [jahiliyyah]),” in the immediate environment in the cradle of Islam was the reason for its emphasis. This would be similar to the case of the Qur’anic emphasis on God’s unity, as the prevailing norm was certain types of polytheism, against which Islam rebelled. In any case, the remarkably persistent presence of science or knowledge in the Qur’an is echoed by the Prophet, who called himself the city of knowledge: “I am the city of knowledge (madinat al ‘ilm) and ‘Ali is its gate.”
 
The word hikmah, usually rendered as "wisdom," is derived from the root h-k-m, which expresses something like practical judgment or practical wisdom, the kind of activity associated with decisions made by a judge or ruler (it is understood that this kind of juridical, administrative, military, or political wisdom requites previous experience and knowledge, as well as the ability to make the right decision in particular cases). Thus, wisdom in the sense of practical judgment, perhaps because it has to do with the most important of human affairs, is said to be more than mere science or knowledge: it serves the purpose of science or knowledge-the making of well-constructed or well-fitted (muhkam) things (the physician, because of his healing art, is thus popularly called hakim ) , as well as pursuing right human conduct and the right way of life.
 
Wisdom is distinguished from science or knowledge in another way: as comprehensive knowledge of things human and divine, especially the latter, or knowledge of the most important things, and thus distinguished from specialized knowledge and trivial knowledge. In this respect, the distinction between hikmah and 'ilm, which have been tendered as wisdom and science or knowledge, respectively, is comparable to the distinction between sophia and episteme in Greek and between sspientia and scientia in Latin. It so happens that in the case of Greek literature translated into Arabic, sophia (i.e., the knowledge of things human and divine) was occasionally translated falsafah (i.e., philosophy). Thus, wisdom and philosophy were in some cases used to mean the same thing: knowledge of the remote causes of things or knowledge of the highest things. When used to mean different things, wisdom reverted to its original sense of practical wisdom or else referred to a particular science or art. Hence the use of the expressions "highest wisdom" and "wisdom of wisdom" to mean the highest science and science of sciences.
  • http://i-epistemology.net/attachments/405_V11N2%20Summer%2094%20-%20Mahdi%20-%20Religious%20Belief%20and%20Scientific%20Belief.pdf - click for a full paper in pdf

http://i-epistemology.net/science-a-technology/504-religious-belief-and-scientific-belief.html - http://i-epistemology.net/science-a-technology/504-religious-belief-and-scientific-belief.html

 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 26 October 2010 at 10:50am
Islam and Western Epistemology
 
A dialogue on Epistemology: How do we know what we know?
 
Dialogue between a Muslim, a  Christian, and a Secular Humanist....
 
Part1/3
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=moJpgEy10Ko - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=moJpgEy10Ko &
 
Part2/3
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40EDelJ0CZc - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40EDelJ0CZc
 
Part3/3
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubaRshUtbXo - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubaRshUtbXo


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 01 November 2010 at 1:11am
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1287 - Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works

Dr Muhammad Hozien

Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun, the well known historian and thinker from Muslim 14th-century North Africa, is considered a forerunner of original theories in social sciences and philosophy of history, as well as the author of original views in economics, prefiguring modern contributions.

In the following detailed and documented article, Muhammad Hozien outlines the bio-bibliography of Ibn Khaldun and presents insights into his theories, especially by comparing his analysis with that of Thucydides, and by characterizing Ibn Khaldun's view on science and philosophy

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1287 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1287

 



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 09 November 2010 at 9:47am

Two Souls in Search of an Oasis       
Umer O. Thasneem

This paper studies the quest for self and identity in the works of Muhammad Asad and Kamala Das (known as Kamala Surayya after she embraced Islam) from a broadly comparative perspective. . I explore how these two authors, belonging to two disparate geographical and cultural milieus, found refuge in Islamic monotheism from the existential crisis that haunts modern humanity. Questions concerning self and existence have baffled humanity ever since people became conscious that each one of them has a self. Does life make any sense in or beyond itself? Does it have any definable aim or goal? What differentiates human beings from other animals, apart from their status as a “talking biped”? These questions, which arise from issues lying at the core of this concern, are treated with the utmost negativity and skepticism in the works of existentialist authors, who attribute no inherent value or significance to human destiny.

Introduction

In his “Waiting for Godot” (1952), for example, Samuel Beckett represents this dilemma in the form of two clowns who, trapped in the web of existence, find themselves unable even to commit suicide to break free of the chains of existence. For atheists like Friedrich Nietzsche and George Bernard Shaw, the current human state was so disgusting that they awaited the arrival of a superman who, they assumed, would be free of all puerile human instincts. As Nietzsche himself  put it in his famous statement:

What is the ape to man? A laughing stock or a painful embarrassment. And just so shall man be to the superman: a laughing stock or a painful embarrassment.

More than a century after Nietzsche predicted the coming of a superman, his prophesied “super species” remains a chimera. As for the visionary himself, he died an inglorious death in a mental asylum. On the other hand, humanity seems busier than ever plumbing even further depths of spiritual and ethical degeneration, as epitomized by the self-indulgent, exploitative, and Epicurean person of modern capitalist societies. American poet Robert Lowell compares this greedy, gluttonous person to a pack of stinky skunks foraging for crumbs in a junkyard. For him, nothing exemplifies the modern human condition better than these slimy, despicable creatures.

We have to place the works of Muhammad Asad and Kamala Das, both of whom address questions of self and existence from a radically different perspective, against this intellectual background. They are not willing to wait for the birth of a superman, nor are they driven by despondency to nihilism. For them, self-fulfillment lies in spiritual elevation – a continual process of redemption to be attained through divine guidance as established by the Qur’an. For them, this redemption is more fulfilling than being a superman.

The Road Taken

The New York Post described Muhammad Asad’s spiritual biography, The Road to Mecca, as “a very rare and powerful book raised completely above the ordinary by its candor and intelligence. … [that] should permanently affect our view of the world.”

Being an autobiographical narrative resembling Henri Charrière’s Papillon (1969) andAxel Munthe’s The Story of San Michele (1929), The Road to Mecca deserves a unique place as a literary masterpiece, for it encompasses a whole range of issues related to philosophy, religion, psychology, geography, and history. It also has a multilayered structure, with an autobiographical narrative fitted into the frame of a travelogue. Nevertheless, the central thread running through it is the quest for self and identity. The following passage illustrates how this quest formed an obsession for Asad right from his childhood days:

Under the soles of my feet I can feel the thin trickle of water [Asad was taking a bath in a shallow desert well after a long journey] seep upward from the underground spring that feeds the well in a slow, unceasing stream of eternal renewal.

Above me the wind hums over the rim of the well and makes its interior sound faintly like the inside of a sea shell held against the ear – a big humming sea shell such as I loved to listen to in my father’s house many, many years ago, a child just big enough to look over the table top. I pressed the shell against my ear and wondered whether the sound was always there or only when I held it to my ear. Was it something independent of me or did only my listening call it forth? Many times did I try to outsmart the shell by holding it away from me, so that the humming ceased, and then suddenly clapping it back to my ear: but there it was again – and I never found out whether it was going on when I did not listen.

I did not know then, of course, that I was being puzzled by a question that had puzzled much wiser heads than mine for countless ages: the question whether there is such a thing as “reality” apart from our minds, or whether our perception creates it. I did not know it then; but, looking back, it seems to me that this great riddle haunted me not only in my childhood but also in later years – as it probably has haunted at one time or another, consciously or unconsciously, every thinking human being: for, whatever the objective truth, to every one of us the world manifests only in the shape, and to the extent, of its reflection in our minds: and so each of us can perceive of “reality” only in conjunction with our own existence.

Herein perhaps may be found a valid explanation for man’s persistent belief, since the earliest stirrings of consciousness, in individual survival after death – a belief too deep, too widely spread through all races and times to be easily dismissed off as “wishful thinking.” It would probably not be too much to say that it has been unavoidably necessitated by the very structure of the human mind. To think in abstract theoretical terms of one’s own death as ultimate extinction may not be difficult; but to visualize it, impossible: for this would mean no less than to be able to visualize the extinction of all reality as such – in other words to imagine nothingness: something that no man’s mind is able to do.

As Asad puts it, questions concerning reality’s essential nature have exercised the minds of countless philosophers and intellectuals; their responses to it have often exhibited skepticism rather than certainty. For Plato, the physical world as we perceive it is merely the shadow/reflection of an ideal metaphysical world beyond. Secured and sealed off from each other, the shadow has no chance of becoming the ideal. For Hindu theologian Shankaracharya, Earth and the entire cosmos are mere delusion. Islam, on the other hand, as Asad saw it, recognizes the empirical world’s contingent reality while asserting a supreme metaphysical reality having an incontestable nature. This supreme reality represents infinite power and absolute authority. Unlike Aristotle’s passive “immovable mover,” the supreme power is always active and alert, accessible to all His servants, even to the humblest and the least tutored. He demands no corporal mortification or tortuous self-denial.

http://i-epistemology.net/attachments/927_ajiss-25-2-stripped%20-%20Thasneem%20-%20Two%20Souls%20in%20Search%20of%20an%20Oasis.pdf - http://i-epistemology.net/attachments/927_ajiss-25-2-stripped%20-%20Thasneem%20-%20Two%20Souls%20in%20Search%20of%20an%20Oasis.pdf


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 07 December 2010 at 3:12pm
Muhammad Institute for Space Science Begins Fundraising for Canadian Space Launch Site
 
The Muhammad Institute for Space Science -- a Canadian organization dedicated to putting the Islamic world back at the forefront of scientific discovery -- wants to build a space-launch facility in Canada.

It cites on its website two chief goals:
— "Giving the Islamic world community a top-level scientific space institution it can call its own."

— "Contributing to the promotion of British Columbia as a world hub for space science and technology."
"The Muhammad Institute for Space Science is a framework for collaboration between Canada and the Islamic World at large, which includes not only the Muslim World community but also the many religious and ethnic minorities that are culturally part of the great Islamic civilization," says the group's website.


Dr. Al Fakir told The Canadian Press his target is to complete the space-port project by 2015....

http://en.islamtoday.net/artshow-236-3878.htm - http://en.islamtoday.net/artshow-236-3878.htm





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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 10 December 2010 at 3:19pm
Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Science and Civilization in Islam.

In the Name of God Most Merciful and Compassionate

The Principles of Islam

The history of science is often regarded today as the progressive accumulation of techniques and the refinement of quantitative methods in the study of Nature. Such a point of view considers the present conception of science to be the only valid one; it therefore judges the sciences of other civilizations in the light of modern science and evaluates them primarily with respect to their "development" with the passage of time. Our aim in this work, however, is not to examine the Islamic sciences from the point of view of modern science and of this "evolutionistic" conception of history; it is, on the contrary, to present certain aspects of the Islamic sciences as seen from the Islamic point of view.

To the Muslim, history is a series of accidents that in no way affect the nontemporal principles of Islam. He is more interested in knowing and "realizing" these principles than in cultivating originality and change as intrinsic virtues. The symbol of Islamic civilization is not a flowing river, but the cube of the Kaaba, the stability of which symbolizes the permanent and immutable character of Islam.

The arts and sciences in Islam are based on the idea of unity, which is the heart of the Muslim revelation. Just as all genuine Islamic art, whether it be the Alhambra or the Paris Mosque, provides the plastic forms through which one can contemplate the Divine Unity manifesting itself in multiplicity, so do all the sciences that can properly be called Islamic reveal the unity of Nature. One might say that the aim of all the Islamic sciences and, more generally speaking, of all the medieval and ancient cosmological sciences is to show the unity and interrelatedness of all that exists, so that, in contemplating the unity of the cosmos, man may be led to the unity of the Divine Principle, of which the unity of Nature is the image...

It is based on the belief that scientia -- human knowledge -- is to be regarded as legitimate and noble only so long as it is subordinated to sapientia -- Divine wisdom. Muslim sages would agree with Saint Bonaventure's "Believe, in order to understand." Like him, they insist that scientia can truly exist only in conjunction with sapientia, and that reason is a noble faculty only insofar as it leads to intellection, rather than when it seeks to establish its independence of its own principle, or tries to encompass the Infinite within some finite system...

The Western world has since concentrated its intellectual energies upon the study of the quantitative aspects of things, thus developing a science of Nature, whose all too obvious fruits in the physical domain have won for it the greatest esteem among people everywhere, for most of whom "science" is identified with technology and its applications. Islamic science, by contrast, seeks ultimately to attain such knowledge as will contribute toward the spiritual perfection and deliverance of anyone capable of studying it; thus its fruits are inward and hidden, its values more difficult to discern. To understand it requires placing oneself within its perspective and accepting as legitimate a science of Nature which has a different end, and uses different means, from those of modern science. If it is unjust to identify Western science solely with its material results, it is even more unjust to judge medieval science by its outward "usefulness" alone. However important its uses may have been in calendarial work, in irrigation, in architecture, its ultimate aim has always been to relate the corporeal world to its basic spiritual principle, through the knowledge of those symbols which unite the various orders of reality. It can only be understood, and should only be judged, in terms of its own aims and its own perspectives.

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/nasr.html - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/nasr.html


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 19 December 2010 at 4:28pm
Arguing God from Being?
 
Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkXi2wXWhDk - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkXi2wXWhDk
 
(About 8 mins)
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 31 December 2010 at 5:26pm
Science in Islamic History
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JQbXQB76Yw - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JQbXQB76Yw &
 
(Around 7 mins)


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 10 January 2011 at 4:34pm

New York Exhibit Highlights 1,001 Muslim Innovations

A hang glider model at “1001 Inventions,” a show about Muslim contributions to science, at the New York Hall of Science, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. Photo: NY Times
 
 

Eight-year-old Marissa Campis is playing a game that is part of the new exhibition, “1,001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World” at the New York Hall of Science in Queens, New York. The touch screen displays a family room, asking visitors to select the items invented during the height of Islam’s “Golden Age”, which lasted for 1,000 years between the 7th and 17th centuries.

“What they made was interesting – like an old fashioned camera,” said Marissa, referring to her favourite invention, a camera obscura, which paved the way for modern day photography. She didn’t know it yet, but she was learning about Muslim culture from Asia, Africa and the southern part of Europe.

The New York Hall of Science was the first stop of the American tour after installations in London and Istanbul drew a recording-breaking 800,000 visitors.

The exhibition’s displays engage visitors not only by explaining how scientific inventions work, it also challenges negative stereotypes of Muslims that have become commonplace as a result of those who associate their hateful actions with Islam. This was reflected by a Pew Research Center report from 2009 that states 38 percent of Americans say Islam encourages violence more than other faiths.

The exhibition breaks down the stereotype that Muslims are associated with violence. By informing visitors of the rich cultural heritage of Muslims, the installation also dispels the narrative that has been shaped by Orientalism, a Western perspective of the East that is often criticised for misrepresenting Eastern civilisation as being less innovative and generally in opposition to Western culture. This view has prevailed for centuries in the West. The scientific achievements from Islam’s Golden Age are surprising to all visitors regardless of their religion; this will be the first time many Muslim Americans learn about these inventions as well since it is a period of time that is not taught in most schools in the West. 

While the era covered by the exhibition is considered the Golden Age of Muslim civilization, this was the same period as Europe’s Dark Ages. This disparity is addressed in the short film 1001 Inventions and The Library of Secrets that introduces the exhibition, starring Academy Award-winning actor Ben Kingsley. The film, in which Kingsley plays 12th century Turkish inventor Al Jazari, follows a group of 21st century teenagers who are taken by Al Jazari on a journey to meet scientists and engineers from Islam’s Golden Age. The film won the Best Educational Film award at 2010 Cannes Film Festival.

As they walk through the purple and gold themed exhibition hall, visitors are drawn to the centrepiece of the display, a 20-foot replica of a water-powered clock created by Al Jazari. And across from the clock is a suspended model of a flying machine designed by 9th century inventor Abbas ibn Firnas, who some consider to be the first person to make a scientific attempt at flying. Yet another popular feature is a drawing of the ship used by the 15th century Muslim Chinese admiral Zheng He, whose ships have been estimated to be as large as football fields.

The display also focuses on non-Muslim scientists and inventors, such as Maimonides – the 12th century Jewish physician from Cordoba, Spain – who worked with Muslim philosophers. His place in the exhibition reveals the successful intercultural partnerships of scientists that led to some of the greatest scientific inventions in history. This history of partnerships is also reflected by the fact that inventors from Islam’s Golden Age built upon the knowledge of their predecessors from Ancient Rome and Greece, and the work of Muslim scientists was later used by European inventors during the Renaissance Era. 

Such links demonstrate the rich legacy of scientific achievements shared by humanity.

The “1,001 Inventions” exhibition, an initiative of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation, a non-profit, non-religious and academic organisation in the UK, will be in New York until April. Its next stop will be the California Science Center in Los Angeles before it moves to the National Geographic Museum in Washington, DC in 2012. Visitors of the exhibition will learn that we can look past today’s differences between East and West because history shows us that the greatest scientific inventions still used today are a result of the partnerships of scientists from across the world.

http://www.illumemag.com/zine/articleDetail.php?New-York-Exhibit-Highlights-1001-Muslim-Innovations-13419 - http://www.illumemag.com/zine/articleDetail.php?New-York-Exhibit-Highlights-1001-Muslim-Innovations-13419


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 17 January 2011 at 5:26pm

The European Muslim Heritage and its Role in the Development of Europe

Professor Salim Al-Hassani http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#author -

Table of contents

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec1 - 1. Opening statement by Michaël Privot
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec2 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec2 - 2. Introduction
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec2 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec2 - 3. Great testimonies
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec4 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec4 - 4. To overcome historical amnesia
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec5 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec5 - 5. Pioneers from Muslim heritage
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec6 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec6 - 6. Various instances of invention
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec7 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec7 - 7. A film for illustration
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec8 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec8 - 8. Concluding remarks
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec9 -

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295#sec9 - 9. Epilogue

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1295



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 11 February 2011 at 6:38pm

From Salman Hameed of http://sciencereligionnews.blogspot.com/2011/01/big-announcement-nidhals-new-book-on.html - Irtiqa :

It is my absolute pleasure to announce that Nidhal Guessoum has a new book out: http://www.amazon.com/Islams-Quantum-Question-Reconciling-Tradition/dp/1848855184/ - Islam’s Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science .

There are very few good books out there that tackle the issue of Islam and science in a rational way. Often, we find apologetic writings that grossly misunderstand science and end up doing a disservice to both Islam and science. Then we have books that address the issues of science and religion, but without a deeper understanding of religion. It is very rare (and I’m quite familiar with the terrain) where the writer takes both religion and science equally seriously. Nidhal’s book is in this rare category.

If I were to write a one line review of his book, here is what I would say: His understanding of science and his interpretation of Islam are both solid in this book, and he makes a thoughtful and passionate effort to reconcile Islam and modern science.

This does not mean that I agree with all his conclusions, but the differences are more at the philosophical level rather than on misunderstood science or misrepresented religion. What I liked best about the book is that even when Nidhal completely disagrees with someone—and there are many in the book with whom he disagrees—he still manages to present their ideas fairly, clearly, and with respect.

Nidhal’s book starts with Islamic theology, addressing the notion of Allah/God in Islam and the concept of knowledge in the Quran. The second part of the book addresses Islam and some issues of contemporary science. As expected, two big areas of discussion here are modern cosmology and biological evolution. He again presents the thinking of various Muslim scholars on the topic, and then presents his own thoughtful analysis.

So if you are looking for an example of how a Muslim scientist (an astrophysicist, in this particular case) might reconcile modern scientific discoveries with his own faith and the Quran, then this is the book for you. Even if you disagree with some parts, you will still end up learning a lot.

http://www.islamicity.com/m/news_frame.asp?Frame=1&referenceID=55291 - http://www.islamicity.com/m/news_frame.asp?Frame=1&referenceID=55291


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: LionKing
Date Posted: 03 April 2011 at 3:43am
Originally posted by searching

I'm the PBS documentary Inside Islam, they discussed how the Qur'an described fetal development. It was absolutely amazing to me how accurate it was. Modern science only relatively recently solved this mystery. And it's in the Qur'an which is an ancient text. I was very impressed.
 
The Greek scientists Galen writes in AD150, in his treatise De Semines:
 
But let us take the account back again to the first conformation of the animal, and in order to make our account orderly and clear, let us divide the creation of the foetus overall into four periods of time. The first is that in which. as is seen both in abortions and in dissection, the form of the semen prevails (Arabic nutfah). At this time, Hippocrates too, the all-marvelous, does not yet call the conformation of the animal a foetus; as we heard just now in the case of semen voided in the sixth day, he still calls it semen. But when it has been filled with blood (Arabic alaqa), and heart, brain and liver are still unarticulated and unshaped yet have by now a certain solidarity and considerable size, this is the second period; the substance of the foetus has the form of flesh and no longer the form of semen. Accordingly you would find that Hippocrates too no longer calls such a form semen but, as was said, foetus. The third period follows on this, when, as was said, it is possible to see the three ruling parts clearly and a kind of outline, a silhouette, as it were, of all the other parts (Arabic mudghah). You will see the conformation of the three ruling parts more clearly, that of the parts of the stomach more dimly, and much more still, that of the limbs. Later on they form "twigs", as Hippocrates expressed it, indicating by the term their similarity to branches. The fourth and final period is at the stage when all the parts in the limbs have been differentiated; and at this part Hippocrates the marvelous no longer calls the foetus an embryo only, but already a child, too when he says that it jerks and moves as an animal now fully formed (Arabic ‘a new creation’) ...

... The time has come for nature to articulate the organs precisely and to bring all the parts to completion. Thus it caused flesh to grow on and around all the bones, and at the same time ... it made at the ends of the bones ligaments that bind them to each other, and along their entire length it placed around them on all sides thin membranes, called periosteal, on which it caused flesh to grow.

Before him, Hippocrates writes:
 
"... both partners alike contain both male and female sperm (the male being stronger than the female must originate from a stronger sperm). Here is a further point: if (a) both partners produce a stronger sperm then a male is the result, whereas if (b) they produce a weak form, then a female is the result. But if (c) one partner produces one kind of sperm, and the other another then the resultant sex is determined by whichever sperm prevails in quantity. For suppose that the weak sperm is much greater in quantity than the stronger sperm: then the stronger sperm is overwhelmed and, being mixed with weak, results in a female. If on the contrary the strong sperm is greater in quantity than the weak, and the weak is overwhelmed, it results in a male"
 
Galen says:
"when it has been filled with blood, and heart, brain and liver are (still) unarticulated and unshaped ... this is the period ... that Hippocrates (called) foetus."
 
Qur'an 22:5 says:
O mankind! if ye have a doubt about the Resurrection, (consider) that We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed
 
Galen says:

"And now the third period of gestation has come ... Thus it (nature) caused flesh to grow on and around all the bones."

Qur'an 23:14:

And we clothed the bones (with) meat.

Both Galen and the Qur'an were incorrect about flesh clothing bones. Histiogenesis is the formation of flesh, it occurs months before ossification, the growth of bone inside the tissue.
 
However Hippocrates who came before, turned out to be correct, as he stated flesh coming before bone.
 
Both were also unaware of the ovum, the female egg, a crucial part of embryology. Aristotle knew two components were necessary, he knew sperm was one, but didn't know the other component, the egg. So he referred to them as "the two sperms". The Qur'an mentions one sperm, no hint of any ovum, which accounts for half the genetic contribution to a child.
 
100 years before Muhammad, 16 of Galens books were translated into Syriac, spoken by some Arab tribes, one of which lived near Madinah.
 
How could Muhammad know one or two paragraphs of Greek science?
 
As he was an international merchant for decades, it's unthinkable he wouldn't have come across SOME information known for centuries.
 
For certainty, we need to find a person who Muhammad knew, that was learned to some extent in Greek medicine.
 
That person was his physician, Nafi Ibn Al-Harith, who studied Greek and Indian medicine in Persia.
 
It is clear, taking into account there was already more accurate knowledge in the world, simply hearing about it once would be enough. The fact he knew someone personally that studied Greek medicine, and the fact the Qur'an fails to mention crucial aspects of embryology as well as incorrectly describing flesh coating bones - renders this miracle non-existant.
 
 
 
 


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 16 April 2011 at 2:05am
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1310"> http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1310 - Book Review of 'Islamic Gardens and Landscapes' by D. Fairchild Ruggles

Margaret Morris

Ranging across poetry, court documents, agronomy manuals, and early garden representations and richly illustrated with pictures and site plans, Islamic Gardens and Landscapes by Dr Fairchild Ruggles is a book of impressive scope sure to interest scholars and enthusiasts alike

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1310 -
 
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1310  


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 22 April 2011 at 4:18am
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1312"> http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1312 - Bringing Back Golden Age of Science and Innovation

Zakri Abdul Hamid

Mr Zakri Abdul Hamid reflects in this article the thoughts that occurred to him after visiting the exhibition "1001 Inventions" in New York Hall of Science.

He concludes it by formulating a wish that the Science, Technology and Innovation Ministry in Malaysia may consider to bring the exhibition "1001 Inventions" to Malaysia to coincide with the "Year of Science" in 2012 that the ministry will organise.
 
http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1312 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1312
 


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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 25 April 2011 at 1:25am

Pioneer Physicians

 
David W. Tschanz

During the classical Muslim civilisation, big scientific advances in medicine were made.

Muslim doctors began by collecting all the medical observations and theories of their predecessors, especially Hippocrates and Galen, and built an original and influential tradition of medical knowledge.

This article presents selected episodes from this tradition, thus proving its richness and wide scope.

Beginning by briefly setting the historical context, the author then then to Al-Zahrawi, the "Father of Surgery", Ibn Zuhr, the Doctor of Seville, Ibn Rushd, Doctor and Philosopher, Ibn Maymun, a doctor in exile, and finally the discoverer of the "secrets of the heart", Ibn al-Nafis al-Dimashqi.

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1308 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1308

 



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 29 April 2011 at 1:54am

Ibn Khaldun: Studies on his Contribution in Economy

A list of articles and research done by a collection of writers on the contributions made by Ibn Khaldun, the Tunision pioneer scholar of the 14th. century, (1332 - 1406), founder of the science of Sociology and the father of Economics

His works cover a wide range of topics, including the Rise and Fall of Empires, Microeconomics, Taxation, Economic Thought, ...

http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1288 - http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=1288



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
http://www.muslimheritage.com/ - Muslim Heritage



Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 05 May 2011 at 1:33am

A Glimpse of Muslim Spain

During the end of the first millennium, Cordova was the intellectual well from which European humanity came to drink.

Students from France and England traveled there to sit at the feet of Muslim, Christian and Jewish scholars, to learn philosophy, science and medicine (Digest, 622).  In the great library of Cordova alone, there were some 600,000 manuscripts (Burke, 122)

This rich and sophisticated society took a tolerant view towards other faiths.  Tolerance was unheard of in the rest of Europe.  But in Muslim Spain; "thousands of Jews and Christians lived in peace and harmony with their Muslim overlords." (38)

Translation & Knowledge Transfer

In another of James Burke's works titled "Connections," he describes how the Muslims thawed out Europe from the Dark Ages. "But the event that must have done more for the intellectual and scientific revival of Europe was the fall of Toledo in Spain to the Christians, in 1105."  In Toledo the Muslims had huge libraries containing the lost (to Christian Europe) works of the Greeks and Romans along with Muslim philosophy and mathematics. "The Spanish libraries were opened, revealing a store of classics and Muslim works that staggered Christian Europeans." (123)

The intellectual plunder of Toledo brought the scholars of northern Europe like moths to a candle.  The Christians set up a giant translating program in Toledo. Using the Jews as interpreters, they translated the Muslim books into Latin.  These books included "most of the major works of Greek science and philosophy... along with many original Muslim works of scholarship." (Digest, 622)

"The intellectual community which the northern scholars found in Spain was so far superior to what they had at home that it left a lasting jealousy of Muslim culture, which was to color Western opinions for centuries" (Burke, 41)

"The subjects covered by the texts included medicine, astrology, astronomy pharmacology, psychology, physiology, zoology, biology, botany, mineralogy, optics, chemistry, physics, mathematics, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, music, meteorology, geography, mechanics, hydrostatics, navigation and history." (42)

These works alone however, didn't kindle the fire that would lead to the Renaissance. They added to Europe's knowledge, but much of it was unappreciated without a change in the way Europeans viewed the world.

Remember, Medieval Europe was superstitious and irrational. "What caused the intellectual bombshell to explode, however, was the philosophy that came with (the books)." (42) ...

http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/islamic-history/452092-a-glimpse-of-muslim-spain.html - http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/islamic-history/452092-a-glimpse-of-muslim-spain.html



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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 17 May 2011 at 1:03pm

Sciences and Knowledge

Selection of images from the Qantara corpus
http://www.qantara-med.org/qantara4/public/show_video.php?vi_flv=savoirs_EN&lang=en - http://www.qantara-med.org/qantara4/public/show_video.php?vi_flv=savoirs_EN&lang=en
 
 
 
The Ribbed dome
 
http://www.qantara-med.org/qantara4/public/show_video.php?vi_flv=coupoles_nervures_EN&lang=en
 
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 24 May 2011 at 11:58pm
The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun.

Ibn khaldun is a fourteenth century Muslim thinker who has written on many subjects, including the rise and fall of nations in his “Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History”.

His writings on economics, economic surplus and economic oriented policies are as relevant today as they were during his time ...

Ibn Khaldun opposed state involvement in trade and production activities. He thought the bureaucrats cannot understand commercial activities and they do not have the same motivations as tradesmen. He predicts relative fall of economic surplus and the decline of the countries in which the state is involved in trade and production. He sees a large army as impediment to the expansion of trade, production and economic surplus...

No one in the history of economic thought has established such a coherent general economic theory to explain and predict the rise and the fall of civilizations, nations and empires as Ibn Khaldun has formulated in his “Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History”.

His theory has the empirical and theoretical power not only to explain the consequences of government policies on production and trade, investment and specialization, but to predict the very survival of the state...


http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/politics-and-economics/452355-economic-theory-of-ibn-khaldun.html - http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/politics-and-economics/452355-economic-theory-of-ibn-khaldun.html



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 27 May 2011 at 12:04am

America Fetes Muslim Civilization

WASHINGTON – In a fresh outreach bid by the Obama administration to the Muslim world, US Secretary of State has launched an exhibition on achievements of the Muslim civilization through ages.

The 1001 Inventions “honors the remarkable accomplishments of Muslims throughout history,” Clinton said in her pre-recorded message posted on the State Department’s website.

The exhibition, which has attracted more than one million over the past year, is set to open Friday, May 27, at the California Science Center in Los Angeles for a seven-month run.

Clinton said the exhibition is aiming at “celebrating a millennium of science and innovation in the Muslim world.”

The “Muslim world has a proud history of innovators,” Clinton said, citing the achievements of prominent Muslim figures like Fatima Al-Fihri who founded the world's first modern university in the ninth century.

She also praised 13th century mechanical engineer Al-Jazari whose theories on crank mechanisms were helpful in driving every plane, train and automobile in the world nowadays.

Clinton also cited Iraqi physician Ali Ibn Nafi who is also credited for inventing the diagram of the human circulatory system in 1242 CE and being the first to have accurately described the part of the cardiovascular system involving the heart and lungs.

Originally funded by the British government and launched in the United Kingdom in 2006, the “1001 Inventions” exhibition is on a five-year global tour, which has already taken it to London, Istanbul and New York.

The “1001 Inventions” exhibition highlights contributions by Muslim scholars to the development of astronomy, math, architecture, medicine and engineering.

It features exhibits spanning Muslin thinkers in different fields of medicine, optics, mathematics, astronomy, higher education, library science, personal hygiene and even the basics of aviation.

It also shows the works of some of history’s finest scientists and scholars who once extended from Spain to China and lightened the world from the seventh century.

For example, at the 13th-century observatory in Maragha, Iran, astrologists developed new models for understanding the universe which helped pave the way for Copernicus' ideas of a sun-centered solar system in 1543.

Muslim Contributions

Organizers say the exhibition’s new tour aims to show the world the contributions of the Golden Age of Muslim Civilizations in different fields of science.

"We're honored that Secretary Clinton agreed to launch our exhibition here at one of the most prestigious science museums in the world,” Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of 1001 Inventions, said in a press release.

"The goal of 1001 Inventions is to highlight the astounding contribution that Muslim civilization has made in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics and how those advances still affect our lives today.” ...

http://www.onislam.net/english/news/americas/452413-america-fetes-muslim-civilization.html - http://www.onislam.net/english/news/americas/452413-america-fetes-muslim-civilization.html



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 02 June 2011 at 12:13am

Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences

Before Ibn Khaldun (the founder of Sociology in the 14th. century), other Muslim scholars raised matters of social interest, which Ibn Khaldun corrected, improved and developed

Among them was Al-Muqaddasi, the 10th centrury Palestinian geographer who touched on various subjects that were later integrated in the field of social sciences 

http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?TaxonomyTypeID=6&TaxonomySubTypeID=43&TaxonomyThirdLevelID=-1&ArticleID=1169 - http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?TaxonomyTypeID=6&TaxonomySubTypeID=43&TaxonomyThirdLevelID=-1&ArticleID=1169



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 08 June 2011 at 12:22am
The Caliphs Gave News Service and Postal System to the World 

The book, "The Timeline of History", published during the fourth quarter of the 20th century, documents historical facts by establishing a linkage between people and events, and records introduction of the first organized news service in the Muslim world by the Caliph in 650 C.E. It also mentions the availability, in 942 C.E., of approximately 1000 stations of postal and news services to the public in the Caliph's Empire. This timeline does not provide any details.

These milestones provided advanced communication between the various strata of the Muslim society in the Muslim world. The Divine message of 'Read' and spread the word of Allah, was taken to heart by the Muslim Ummah during the life of Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless and greet him, whose instructions and guidance brought a change in the lives of tribal and ethnic groups.

A cursory look at the golden age of Islam reveals that the scientific achievements made by Muslims were continuous during that era...

http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC1106-4704 - http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC1106-4704



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 14 June 2011 at 11:22pm
When The Moors Ruled in Europe

This documentary describes the glorious rule of Muslim Moors in what is now Spain.

A forgotten history is remembered.

A nice video by Betany Hugges!

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-768956312207897325 - When the Moors Ruled in Europe #
http://%20video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-768956312207897325# -
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-768956312207897325#



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Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 21 June 2011 at 2:44pm
Really nice documentary.Thank you for the link.
 
The Muslim Art of Science

THE HOUSE OF WISDOM

How Arabic Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave Us the Renaissance

By Jim al-Khalili

302 pp. The Penguin Press. $29.95.

In the thousand years between the decline of Rome and the springtime of the Renaissance, science and other branches of learning took a holiday throughout Europe. It was a benighted time in the history most of us raced through in school, skipping lightly through Charlemagne and Richard the Lion-Hearted, the Norman Conquest and the Crusades, and arriving none too soon at the time of Leonardo and Michelangelo, Columbus and da Gama, Erasmus and Luther.

Ignored for the most part in Eurocentric accounts is the parallel culture that rose in the Middle East with the swift spread of Islam after the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632. Lands from Spain to Persia and beyond fell to the Muslim sword, and in time some ambitious rulers made their palaces sanctuaries of learning, the think tanks of their day, where astronomers, mathematicians, physicians and philosophers were allowed to venture beyond the received word and to practice science as an empirical inquiry.

Jim al-Khalili, an Iraqi-born physicist who has lived in Britain since 1979, has taken on the task of elevating this neglected period to its rightful place in history. His new book, “The House of Wisdom,” reflects a depth of research, an ability to tell a fascinating story well and fair-­mindedness where minds too often are closed.

Al-Khalili positions himself with care, more or less above the clash of civilizations but with unconcealed pride in his roots. He is the son of a British mother and a Shiite Muslim father of Persian descent, and was educated in England. As a self-described atheist, he declares up front, “My interest in Islam is cultural rather than spiritual.” He prefers the more neutral term “Arabic science” to “Arab science.” Some of the notable scientists were Christians, Jews and Persians, after all, and they had in common Arabic as the lingua franca. He also reminds readers that in early Islam there was no bitter conflict between religion and science and that the Koran encouraged the close study of all God’s works.

In this spirit, the author retrieves for us several dozen all but forgotten men of science and philosophy to correct the negative stereotype of Islam “that contrasts with our Western secular, rational, tolerant and enlightened society.” A thousand years ago, he emphasizes, “the roles were reversed.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/22/books/review/book-review-the-house-of-wisdom-by-jim-al-khalili.html?_r=1 - http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/22/books/review/book-review-the-house-of-wisdom-by-jim-al-khalili.html?_r=1



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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: a well wisher
Date Posted: 28 July 2011 at 9:30pm
American Imams Initiate Letter Declaring Islam Compatible with Biological Evolution
 
Islamic teachers and imams in America have begun signing an open letter declaring that there is no clash between their religious faith and the theory of biological evolution.

The Imam Letter, launched this week in the US, is the latest challenge to Creationists of the three Abrahamic religions who reject evolution in favour of Creationism.

Creationism is the religious belief that all species were created in exactly the form they appear today.

Biological evolution is a scientific theory which posits that modern species have undergone major changes over time and can be traced back to earlier species from which they descended.

Muslims, Christians, and Jews who accept the theory of biological evolution believe that God can create life in any way he wishes, and this could be through a process of change over time.

The letter reads in part: "We, the undersigned Imams of the mosques, assert that the Qur’an is the primary source of spiritual inspiration and of values for us... We believe that the timeless truths of the Qur’an may comfortably coexist with the discoveries of modern science."
 
http://en.islamtoday.net/artshow-236-4083.htm - http://en.islamtoday.net/artshow-236-4083.htm
 
 


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La ilaha ill-Allah, Muhammadur Rasulullah


Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 08 August 2011 at 12:08am
Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilisation opens its doors (Emirates)

SHARJAH // In 953 AD, when the Sultan of Egypt demanded a pen that would not stain his clothes, the world's first fountain pen was invented and then presented to him.

The number zero, the decimal point in arithmetic, algebra, tools that measure celestial bodies, breakthroughs in medicine such as the treatment of cataracts and glaucoma, and the world's first biological weapons are a sample of the wealthy legacy of the Islamic civilisation and its greatest minds.

In the spirit of Ramadan, the Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilisation invites visitors to come for free and "seek knowledge" through its impressive 5,000 masterpieces on the history, culture and art of the Muslim world.

The Prophet Mohammed said: "Seek knowledge even as far as China, for the pursuit of knowledge is the duty of every individual Muslim."

A stroll through the science and innovation gallery of the museum, particularly by anyone who is fasting, will help gain insight into how timings of the prayers, the direction of the Qibla of Mecca, and the shape of the moon were all measured by their Muslim ancestors.

The questions to Islam's various timekeeping challenges were solved through trigonometry. Six of the world's modern trigonometric functions, such as tangent and cotangent, owe their origin and Arabic names to Muslim scholars.

"One of the most rewarding ways of suppressing the hunger of the stomach is to feed the mind and soul by seeking knowledge and understanding," said Aisha Deemas, 27, the museum's curator.

"People should take the opportunity in Ramadan to learn about the Islamic civilisation, and how it is not just our past accomplishments but about now and in the future," she said...

The story of Islam and its people can be discovered through the museum's six halls. One is dedicated to faith and the more spiritual aspect of Islam. It includes a copy of Uthman ibn Affan's Quran, the third caliph of Muslims, 644-656 AD, in Kufic script, on parchment. It gives the world a glimpse into how the first Quran looked when it was made into a book form.

Another hall of the museum is dedicated to science and innovation, with the last four touching upon every aspect of Muslim life as it evolved through the ages.

In the science hall, Ms Deemas points out the intricate workings of the "astrolabe", a measuring tool described by the Greeks but perfected by the Muslims. It helped establish the time of the day and night, measured the movements of the stars, and determined directions during travels. "Regardless of what the object was for, its creators would put great effort in its design and detail," Ms Deemas said.

The early biological weapons were only intended to be thrown and broken near an enemy. Yet the circular grenades made of pottery, with live poisonous creatures inside - including snakes or scorpions - would have intricate floral designs drawn on their surfaces.

"Islam touches every aspect of one's life," she said.

How the religion influenced domestic life is captured through the incense burners, perfume bottles, dishes, jars, and pillow cases that would be adorned with calligraphy - often a verse of blessing from the Quran - along with other designs.

Clothing, including slippers, and accessories such as jewellery, were of different designs, depending on the Islamic period and the various influences of nearby cultures.

At the same time, the often neglected "entertainment" aspect of a Muslim's life was captured through musical instruments such as the kemanche, a stringed instrument often made of tortoise shell.

Even tea, especially black tea accompanied often by milk, which is always present at every iftar, spread through Iran to the rest of the Muslim world. From inventions, to poetry, to art, there is a lot to learn at the museum about Islam, and the many ways it has shaped how Muslims celebrate important seasons and rituals.


http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/sharjah-museum-of-islamic-civilisation-opens-its-doors - http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/sharjah-museum-of-islamic-civilisation-opens-its-doors



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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 13 August 2011 at 11:47am

Muslim Inventions Dazzle California

Discovering a neglected part in the history of mankind, California students visiting “1001 Inventions” exhibition for Islam’s early contributions to science were introduced to the historically missed golden age of Muslim civilization that paved the world to the modern age of renaissance.

"It communicates the multicultural roots of science, and we have a diverse audience," Diane Perlov, the center's vice president of exhibit development, told Venture County Star on Friday, August 12.

"This shows that more than Europeans and Americans invented scientific breakthroughs, and it inspires young people toward these fields."

The “1001 Inventions” exhibition highlights contributions by Muslim scholars to the development of astronomy, math, architecture, medicine and engineering.

It features exhibits spanning Muslim thinkers in different fields of medicine, optics, mathematics, astronomy, higher education, library science, personal hygiene and even the basics of aviation.

It also shows the works of some of history’s finest scientists and scholars who once extended from Spain to China and lightened the world from the seventh century.

Touring different world countries, the exhibition has attracted more than one million over the past year in Turkey and Europe.

Reaching America, it passed by New York before opening its doors at the California Science Center in Los Angeles.

At the entrance of the exhibition, visitors see a 13-minute film starring Ben Kingsley as a librarian who becomes a famed old-world inventor to explain in simple terms what the exhibit entails.

Giving an example of famed Muslim scientists, Kingsley plays the role of Al-Jazari, the author of "Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices," a book written in the early 13th century.

Al-Jazari created the first crankshaft system, which is similar to the kind used in internal combustion engines.

He also made intricate clocks, most notably the Elephant Clock, the first known water clock to accurately tell time.

The exhibition also sheds light on education which played a major role during this period when Fatima al-Fihri contributed by establishing the first university, in Morocco during the mid-800s...

http://www.onislam.net/english/news/americas/453471-muslim-inventions-dazzle-california.html - http://www.onislam.net/english/news/americas/453471-muslim-inventions-dazzle-california.html

http://www.onislam.net/english/news/americas/453471-muslim-inventions-dazzle-california.html -



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
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Posted By: Al-Cordoby
Date Posted: 13 October 2011 at 12:41am

Pioneers of Islamic History

Al-Khwarizmi: The Father of Algebra

Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, (780 – 850 CE), was the grandfather of computer science and the father of Algebra.

He was the popularizer of Arabic numerals, adopter of zero (the symbol) and the decimal system, astronomer, cartographer, in brief an encyclopedic scholar...

Khwarizmi developed detailed trigonometric tables containing the sine functions which later included tangent functions. Khwarizmi’s book on arithmetic was translated into Latin and published in Rome in 1857 by Prince Baldassare Boncompagni and appears as part 1 of a volume entitled “Tratti d’ aritmetica”...

Khwarizmi’s contribution and influence are tremendous. Two important books on arithmetic, Carmen de Algorismo and Algorismus vulgaris which were written in 12th. and 13th. century respectively owe a lot to the Khwarizmi’s book and were used for several hundred years in Europe. Abu Kamil Shuja, an Islamic mathematician, whose work on mathematics was based on Khwarizmi’s works kept the influence of Khwarizmi on Leonardo of Pisa, a 13th. century scholar and up to Middle Ages and during the Renaissance...


http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/islamic-history/454243-al-khwarizmi-the-father-of-algebra.html - http://www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/research-studies/islamic-history/454243-al-khwarizmi-the-father-of-algebra.html



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Think Win-Win for a better world for all...

http://cortoby.blogspot.com/ - My Blog
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